Causes of the American Revolution Goal 1- Objective 1.03 Civics and Economics
Goals and Objectives • Goal 1 - The learner will investigate the foundations of the American political system and explore basic values and principles of American democracy. • Objective 1.03- Examine the causes of the American Revolution.
I. Colonial Resistance • Salutary Neglect • For years the American colonists had managed their own affairs and gained experience in self government due to salutary neglect. • When George III took the throne, Britain's policy towards the colonies began to change.
I. Colonial Resistance • Mercantilism • The theory that a country’s power depends on its wealth. • Great Britain used the colonies as a source of cheap materials. • Navigation Acts – American colonies could only trade with Great Britain.
I. Colonial Resistance • Growing Tensions • Albany Plan of the Union – 1st attempt to unite the colonies and form a federal union. • French and Indian War – war fought between Great Britain and France over North American territory. A. British won, left them with a huge debt. • Proclamation of 1763 – prohibited colonists to settle passed the Appalachian Mountains.
I. Colonial Resistance • Growing Tensions • To pay off their huge war debt, the British placed heavy taxes and strict restrictions on the American colonies. • Stamp Act – tax on all legal documents • Quartering Act – required colonists to house and feed British troops.
I. Colonial Resistance • Worsening Relations • Many colonists decided to boycott British goods. A. Boycott – refuse to buy • Organizations were formed to oppose new taxes and restrictions. • Sons of Liberty – British opposition group • Committees of Correspondence – distributed anti British literature. • Common Sense – pamphlet that fanned the flames of the revolution written by Thomas Paine.
I. Colonial Resistance • Stamp Act Congress • Held in New York City with the purpose of repealing the Stamp Act. A. Repealed – overturned or cancelled. • Stamp act was repealed but Parliament passed the Declaratory Act. A. Declaratory Act – Parliament had the right to make decisions for the colonies in all cases. • The Townshend Acts soon followed. • Townshend Acts – legalized writs of assistance and assisted arrests of smugglers. 1. Writs of Assistance – Allowed British to search homes without warrant.
I. Colonial Resistance • Stamp Act Congress • Angered by these laws, colonist cause trouble for British officials. • Boston Massacre – British soldier fired into a crowd, killing five.
I. Colonial Resistance • New Taxes and a Tea Party • Colonists resented the new taxes because they had no representation in Parliament. A. “No Taxation Without Representation” • Tea Act – gave British the right to ship tea without paying tea tax. • Boston Tea Party - British tea dumped into Boston harbor in protest of Tea Act
I. Colonial Resistance • New Taxes and a Tea Party 4. Coercive/Intolerable Acts – passed as a punishment for the tea party, restricted colonists civil rights including trial by jury.
II. Moving Toward Independence • 1st Continental Congress • Colonial governments banned together to fight the Intolerable Acts. Delegates were sent to Philadelphia to discuss their concerns. • 1st Continental Congress lasted 7 weeks. Delegates sent a document demanding he restore their rights. A. Olive Branch Petition – document sent to King George III, giving him an ultimatum.
II. Moving Towards Independence • 1st Continental Congress • King George responded with force. Two battles took place at Lexington and Concord • “Shot heard Round the World” – poem written by Ralph Waldo Emerson to immortalize colonists who fought at these battles.
II. Moving Towards Independence • 2nd Continental Congress • Delegates again met in Philadelphia to discuss independence. • Not all supported independence, but by 1776 most agreed and the Congress appointed a committee to write a document that would officially announce their independence. • Declaration of Independence – written by Thomas Jefferson and approved on July 4, 1776.