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1750 1800 1900 PowerPoint Presentation
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1750 1800 1900

1750 1800 1900

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1750 1800 1900

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  1. Linnaeus Mendel 1750 1800 1900 Lamarck Darwin

  2. Linnaeus (1707-1778) • Classified and grouped organisms based on their characteristics. • Developed classification system (ex. humans) • Kingdom (Animalia) • Phylum (Chordata) • Class (Mammalia) • Order (Primates) - Family (Hominidae) - Genus (Homo) -Species (sapien) Back to Timeline

  3. Lamarck (1744-1829) Early evolutionist who believed in three principles that drove evolution 1) Use and Disuse – Parts of the body that were used developed, and other parts not in use did not develop 2) Inheritance of acquired characteristics – traits that an organism acquired during its lifetime can be passed on 3) Species transformation – Acquired characteristics is passed on to the subsequent population

  4. According to Lamarck, the giraffe’s neck grew longer over time, because of the giraffe’s “desire” to reach the higher leaves. Since they had to use their neck muscles more to stretch and reach the upper leaves, these acquired traits developed and were passed on to the subsequent generations. Back to Timeline

  5. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) Augustinian monk, through his study of pea plants helped father the study of modern genetics Back to Timeline

  6. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) • English naturalist who took a 5-year voyage on the HMS Beagle and studied the diverse species on the Galapagos Islands • Pubished his book The Origin of Species in 1859, where he discusses his theory of natural selection as the mechanism for evolution

  7. How do Darwin’s evolutionary principles differ from Lamarck’s? 1) Heredity - Natural selection is a process in which some individuals have genetically-based traits that improve survival and reproduction. Genes can be passed on to the next generation. 3. Differential Reproduction: You either have the genes to survive or you don’t. “Desire” has nothing to do with it. If you have genes that help your survival, you will reproduce and leave behind more offspring with your genes than those who don’t. 2. Genetic Variation - There is diversity in any population. Genetic variation in the population can arise due to mutation and the shuffling of genes in meiotic processes.

  8. What is the general way we refer to those who survive? Fitness: • An individual’s success at reproducing • (the more offspring the individual leaves, the higher its fitness). • Fitness is dependent upon a particular phenotype that individual has.

  9. Evolution of Color in Beetle Populations

  10. How do we measure evolution? Measure the allele frequency of genes for both coloration before and after a certain period of time

  11. Overview of the Steps of Natural Selection • Organisms have reproductive potential. • There is genetic variation in a population. • The genetic variation is heritable. • Environmental resources are limited and/or there is a struggle for survival. • Individuals will compete to survive, so there is differential reproduction. • The most fit will pass on its genes to the subsequent generation, increasing its gene frequency in the population. • Evolution is measured and is evident when allele frequencies of genes change over time in a population.

  12. What are sources of genetic variation? • Mutations - those created in gametes can be passed on to the next generation(not those in somatic cells) • Sexual Reproduction – creates individuals with new, random allelic combinations • Diploidy – presence of two copies of each chromosome in a cell • Polymorphism - (dominant/recessive interactions, etc. in diploid organisms) • Quantitative characters – added effect of 2 or more genes on phenotype (ex. height) • Neutral Variation – natural variations that do not offer any selective advantage (ex. Fingerprints)

  13. Misconceptions about Natural Selection • It is not “Survival of the Fittest;” really it is “Survival of the ‘fit enough’” If A = normal blood and a = sickle cell blood, then . . . AA = normal Aa = normal aa = sickle cell Recessive alleles for disease can stay unnoticed in a population

  14. Misconceptions about Natural Selection • Sometimes heterozygotes are more “fit” than homozygotes… • For ex. sickle cell carriers (Aa) are also resistant to malaria • This is called heterozygote advantage

  15. Sometimes fitness is dependent upon population frequency Ex. Minority advantage when rare phenotypes have an advantage over the more common phenotypes As rare phenotypes increase in population, they lose their advantage Often seen in predator-prey situations Misconceptions about Natural Selection

  16. What evidence do we have of evolution? 1. Homologous Structures – Similarities in physiology due to common ancestry in differing species

  17. What evidence do we have of evolution? 2. Vestigial Structures – Structure of marginal importance to an organism that may have served a more important function in its ancestors… ex. leg bones of a snake

  18. What evidence do we have of evolution? 3. Embryological Homologies – similarities found in the embryonic development of related species

  19. What evidence do we have of evolution? 4. Molecular Homologies – similarities found at the molecular level of related species…ex. DNA, RNA, AA

  20. What evidence do we have of evolution? 5. Fossil Record – reveal pre-historic existence of past species as well as those related species still in existence

  21. What evidence do we have of evolution? Blue-footed boobie from Galapagos Islands 6. Biogeography – the geographic distribution of species ex. evolution of “endemic” species on islands that are found nowhere else in the world

  22. What current examples do we have of evolution? • Insecticide Resistance - Application of insecticides kill insects w/o resistance, but promotes the reproduction of those with resistance

  23. What current examples do we have of evolution? 2. Drug resistant HIV - 3TC HIV drug works by mimicking the nitrogenous base Cytosine - within 4 weeks, HIV resistant strains appeared, with the ability to distinguish between 3TC and Cytosine