Foods 1 Obj. 2.05 Understand Procedures, Equipment, & Cooking Methods in Food Preparation Important Facts About Eggs
Parts of an Egg • Shell: needs to be free of cracks or bacteria can get into the egg • Albumen: white part of the egg. Rich in protein. • Yolk: yellow part of the egg. Contains fat, cholesterol, vitamins A and D. • Chalazae: thick strands that hold the albumen in place in the egg. Looks like an umbilical cord. • http://www.incredibleegg.org/egg-facts/egg-industry-evolution Egg Shell Albumen Yolk
Nutritional Value • They are a nutrient-dense food because they contain about 75 calories, but are loaded with nutrients such as: • Protein • Fat and cholesterol • Folate • Vitamin D and A • Do you think that the color of the egg has anything to do with its nutritional value? • http://www.incredibleegg.org/egg-facts/egg-industry-evolution
Characteristics of Fresh/High Quality Eggs • Yolk is high & firm above the white • Small yolk diameter • Yolk is centered in white • High ratio of thick to thin white • High standing thick white
Purchasing Eggs • Grading • The best-quality eggs are graded USDA • Grade AA, followed by USDA Grade A. – The grades sold at supermarkets. • USDA Grade B, the lowest grade. – Available to food service establishments and not sold directly to consumers.
Egg Sizes The size of egg that most recipes are based upon is Large.
Egg Safety Tips 1. Inspect before buying and discard any broken eggs 2. Refrigerate immediately at or below 40 F 3. Keep in cartons 4. Cook until the whites are coagulated & yolks begin to thicken to kill the salmonella bacteria 5. Egg dishes should not be kept out >1 hour
Functions of Eggs in Cooking • Binding: eggs bind (hold together) ingredients in a recipe. Ex. Meatloaf • Emulsifying: eggs hold together two ingredients that normally would not stay mixed, like oil and vinegar. Ex. Mayonnaise • Providing structure: eggs expand with heat and provide structure to baked goods. Ex. Cooked custard.
Dry Heat: Fried Scrambled Omelets Moist heat: “Boiled” eggs Coddled eggs prepared in a cup Poached eggs A variety of custards Eggs that are prepared using the microwave Preparation of Eggs
How to Beat Egg Whites into a Foam • To successfully beat egg whites to a foam one has to follow certain guidelines: a. Separate egg whites from egg yolk correctly: no trace of egg yolk can be present in the egg whites, or they will not foam due to the presence of fat in egg yolks. b. Only use bowls and utensils made of non-porous material such as metal or glass. c. Allow egg whites to stand at room temperature for 30 minutes. d. Use cream of tartar to stabilize the egg whites and help them come to a richer foam.
Soft Peaks or Stiff Peaks? • If the recipe calls for egg whites beaten to soft peaks, whip them until the mixture bend over like waves when you lift the mixer’s beaters up • If the recipe calls for stiff peaks, whip the eggs until the mixture stands up straight when the beaters are lifted from the mixture. • CAUTION: when you add the egg whites foam to the rest of the ingredients, use the “fold” technique or all the air that you incorporated in the foam will go away and your recipe will come out flat.
• Temperature: – room temperature • Fat: – decreases foam formation • Sugar: – increases stability – delays foam formation – added at foamy or soft peak stage • Acid: – increases stability – doesn’t delay foam formation Volume & Stability Factors of Egg Whites
Cooking Eggs • Hard Cooked: boil eggs in water. As soon as the water boils remove the pan from the heat source and let stand in the hot water for 12-15 minutes. Pour the hot water out and replace with cold water. Peel and refrigerate immediately. To avoid the egg yolk turning green, do not overcook them. • REMEMBER: fresh eggs are harder to peel than older eggs.
Cooking Eggs, cont… • Poaching: healthy way to cook an egg. Break the egg in simmering water and cook until done. http://www.traileraddict.com/clip/julie-julia/poaching-eggs • Frying: break eggs in a greased skillet and fry until the whites are set and the yolk is thick. • Scrambled: beat eggs before pouring them into a hot and greased skillet. Cook and stir until they thicken. • Baked: called shirred eggs. Break eggs and pour them into a ramekin or shallow baking pan. Bake at 325˚F. for about 15 or until thick. • Microwaving: never microwaving eggs in the shell and do not overcook. Pour eggs in a microwave-safe bowl and microwave, stirring often.
Diagram of an Egg • Draw and label the egg diagram on pg 491 in Food for Today