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A Cathode Ray Tube

A Cathode Ray Tube

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A Cathode Ray Tube

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  1. Source of Electrical Potential Stream of negative particles (electrons) Metal Plate Gas-filled glass tube Metal plate A Cathode Ray Tube Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 58

  2. Background Information Cathode Rays • Form when high voltage is applied across electrodes in a partially evacuated tube. • Originate at the cathode (negative electrode) and move to the anode (positive electrode) • Carry energy and can do work • Travel in straight lines in the absence of an external field

  3. Cathode Ray Experiment 1897 Experimentation • Using a cathode ray tube, Thomson was able to deflect cathode rays with an electrical field. • The rays bent towards the positive pole, indicating that they are negatively charged.

  4. High voltage negative plate source of high voltage _ cathode anode + positive plate The Effect of an Electric Field on Cathode Rays Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, page 117

  5. Conclusions • He compared the value with the mass/ charge ratio for the lightest charged particle. • By comparison, Thomson estimated that the cathode ray particle weighed 1/1000 as much as hydrogen, the lightest atom. • He concluded that atoms do contain subatomic particles - atoms are divisible into smaller particles. • This conclusion contradicted Dalton’s postulate and was not widely accepted by fellow physicists and chemists of his day. • Since any electrode material produces an identical ray, cathode ray particles are present in all types of matter - a universal negatively charged subatomic particle later named the electron

  6. Conclusiones • He comparado con el valor de la masa / carga más ligera para la proporción de partículas cargadas. • En comparación, Thomson calcula que las partículas de rayos catódicos pesaba 1 / 1000 tanto como el hidrógeno, el átomo más ligero. • Él llegó a la conclusión de que los átomos contienen partículas subatómicas, átomos de dividirse en partículas más pequeñas. • Esta conclusión es contradicha Dalton postulado y no fue ampliamente aceptada por sus compañeros físicos y químicos de su época. • Dado que todo el material del electrodo produce una idéntica de rayos, rayos catódicos partículas están presentes en todos los tipos de materia, universal negativamente cargado de partículas subatómicas más tarde el nombre de electrón

  7. High voltage High voltage negative plate source of high voltage - source of low voltage cathode + anode positive plate Cathode Rays (A) The effect of an obstruction on cathode rays shadow source of high voltage cathode yellow-green fluorescence • Cathode ray = electron • Electrons have a • negative charge (B) The effect of an electric field on cathode rays Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter , 3rd Edition, 1990, pages 117-118

  8. J.J. Thomson • He proved that atoms of any element can be made to emit tiny negative particles. • From this he concluded that ALL atoms must contain these negative particles. • He knew that atoms did not have a net negative charge and so there must be balancing the negative charge. J.J. Thomson

  9. Spherical cloud of Positive charge Electrons William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) • In 1910 proposed the Plum Pudding model • Negative electrons were embedded into a positively charged spherical cloud. Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 56

  10. Thomson Model of the Atom • J.J. Thomson discovered the electron and knew that electrons could be emitted from matter (1897). • William Thomson proposed that atoms consist of small, negative electrons embedded in a massive, positive sphere. • The electrons were like currants in a plum pudding. • This is called the ‘plum pudding’ model of the atom. electrons - - - - - - - -