Challenges and Changes in the Movement Chapter 21 Sec 3
I. African Americans Seek Greater Equality • A. Northern Segregation • 1. Problem was with de facto segregation which is segregation that exists by practice and custom. • 2. De facto segregation can be harder to fight than de jure segregation, or segregation by law because it requires to changing people’s attitudes rather than laws. • 3. Blacks lived in the slums in the inner city and whites had migrated to the suburbs.
II. New Leaders Voice Discontent • A. African American Solidarity • 1. Malcolm X spoke for the Nation of Islam, or Black Muslims • The leader of the Nation of Islam was Elijah Muhammad • 2. Malcolm X preached that whites were the cause of the black condition and that blacks should separate from white society. • 3. He advocated armed defense. • 4. Malcolm changed his tune when he made a pilgrimage to Mecca and realized Islam preached racial equality. • 5. He came back with a new slogan “ballots or bullets.” • 6. Malcolm was shot by a fellow Nation of Islam member on Feb. 21, 1965.
B. Black Power • 1. Black Power was “a call for black people to define their own goals… and to lead their own organizations.” • 2. Stokely Carmichael coined the idea/phrase of Black Power to focus on developing African American pride. • 3. Scared many whites.
C. Black Panthers • 1. Created by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, CA in 1965. • 2. They were organized to fight police brutality in the ghettos. They also set up daycare centers, breakfast programs, free clinics, etc. • 3. Believed blacks should be exempt from military service because an unfair number had fought in the Vietnam War. • 4. Had shootouts with police and were investigated by the FBI, however, the group did help the poor and homeless in the ghettos.
III. 1968-A Turning Point in Civil Rights • A. Kings Death and Robert Kennedy’s Death • 1. King was shot by James Earl Gray while delivering a speech on April 3, 1968. • 2. Kennedy was scheduled to speak in a black area of Indianapolis and he pleaded with people to not riot. • 3. Despite his plea riots broke out in over 100 cities and in June of 1968 Kennedy was shot by a Jordanian immigrant angry over Kennedy’s support of Israel.
IV. Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement • A. Kerner Commission • 1. LBJ appointed the Kerner Commission to investigate the reasons of the urban violence. • The Kerner Commission reported that: • One cause: white racism • The country was moving toward 2 societies, one white, one black.
B. Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement • 1. The Civil Rights Act of 1968 ended discrimination in housing. • 2. Gave African Americans greater pride in their racial identity. • 3. Made substantial political gains-2/3 of blacks were registered to vote. • 4. de jure segregation was ended.
C. Unfinished Work • 1. Challenges still include housing and job discrimination, educational inequality, poverty, and racism. • 2. Lack of jobs remain a problem. • 3. Blacks attend predominantly black schools. • 4. Affirmative Action was tried • Programs that make special effort to hire or enroll groups of people that have suffered discrimination • Criticized as “reverse discrimination”