1 / 36

Teaching the Ethical Foundations of Economics

Teaching the Ethical Foundations of Economics. Lesson 7: Should We Allow a Market for Transplant Organs?. Are some markets too repulsive to consider?. ewww!!!!. prostitution. gambling. pollution permits. interest on loans. ticket scalping. horse meat. illicit drugs. uterus rental.

Télécharger la présentation

Teaching the Ethical Foundations of Economics

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Teaching the Ethical Foundations of Economics Lesson 7: Should We Allow a Market for Transplant Organs?

  2. Are some markets too repulsive to consider?

  3. ewww!!!!

  4. prostitution

  5. gambling

  6. pollution permits

  7. interest on loans

  8. ticket scalping

  9. horse meat

  10. illicit drugs

  11. uterus rental

  12. dwarf-tossing

  13. selling human organs

  14. Should We Allow a Market For Transplant Organs? Or. . . Brother,can you spare a kidney?

  15. Kidney Transplant Background • From the first kidney transplant in 1954, both transplants and those seeking transplants have grown over time. • Transplants • 1990 10,000 • 2005 13,700 • Most of this increase came from live donors.

  16. Background. . . • Waiting list • 1990 17,000 • 2006 65,000 • Reasons for the increase? • Technological advance. • Inability of the current system to procure enough organs.

  17. Background. . . • In 2004, there were 50,000 on the official waiting list, but 335,000 on dialysis. • The median waiting time for people placed on the kidney transplant waiting list is more than 3 years. • People suffer and die while waiting for a kidney transplant: • 1990 1,000 people died • 2005 4,000 people died

  18. Background. . . • In 2004, 80% of living donors and recipients were related. • The opportunity to buy and sell kidneys has the potential to save lives and improve the quality of life for many people.

  19. The Demand for Kidney Transplants Has Grown Faster Than the Supply Source: Becker and Elias, 2007

  20. Prohibition places a ceiling price on kidneys. Government mandated price ceiling of $0.

  21. How many kidneys are donated at P=$0? 20,000 kidneys supplied (donated) at P= $0

  22. How many kidneys are demanded at P=$0? 20,000 kidneys supplied (donated) at P= $0 80,000 kidneys demanded at P= $0

  23. What is the shortage, and what caused it? 60,000 kidney shortage

  24. What would happen if the ban on kidney sales was lifted?

  25. Objections to a Market Solution • Unfair to the poor • Exploitation • Coercion • Objectification • Illegal (black) markets • Fewer altruistic donors

  26. Fair to the poor? • No! • Poor are priced out of the market. • Poor may be “coerced” into selling kidneys. • Poor may not understand the risks. • Yes! • Is it ethical to deprive the poor of the opportunity to increase their standard of living – and save lives? • We allow markets in: blood, hair, and the use of a uterus.

  27. Coercion and Exploitation? • Coercion in the absence of monetary compensation? • Is it coercive to pay people higher wages for more dangerous employment? “It is an unethical approach to shift the tragedy from those waiting for organs to those exploited into selling them.”

  28. Objectification? • Money can transform a “good” deed into a “bad” one. • Treating the body as a commodity? “…any procedure which tends to commercialize human organs or to consider them as items of exchange or trade must be considered morally unacceptable, because to use the body as an ‘object’ is to violate the dignity of the human person.” Pope John Paul II, 2000

  29. Organ theft? • As opposed to prohibition, a market would make kidneys more available, lowering the price, making theft less profitable. • A live donor market could virtually eliminate the possibility theft. • Under prohibition, what is the black market price of a kidney?

  30. The Black Market price of kidneys?

  31. Would there be fewer altruistic donors? S

  32. Public campaign to increase altruistic donations? S

  33. If it is obvious that a market would save lives, why don’t we allow it? Agent Action Consequences

  34. Ethical Theories • Outcomes-Based:Right Consequences • It’s results that matter. • Duty-Based:Right Action • Proscribed ethical principles. • Virtue-Based:Right Agent • Intentions and personal virtues matter.

  35. Policy Options • Current voluntary system • Free market • Regulated market • Communitarian approach

  36. Further Reading • Becker and Elias, “Introducing Incentives in the Market for Live and Cadaveric Organ Donations, Journal of Economic Perspectives 21(3), Summer 2007, p.2-24 • Howard, “Producing Organ Donors,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 21(3), Summer 2007, p. 25-36. • Roth, “Repugnance as a Constraint on Markets,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 21(3), Summer 2007, p. 37-58. • http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/11/13/kidneys-for-sale/#more-2089

More Related