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  1. Evidence that I am here- Part I!Ms. Gorney’s Biology EOC Review PART IPRINT OUT THIS SLIDE AND GIVE IT TO MS. GORNEY FOR EXTRA CREDIT! Name ____________________ Date _____________________ Parent Signature ____________________ 11/17/2014 4:27 PM

  2. EOC REVIEW NOTESPart 1 Spring 2009

  3. Ecology and Scientific Method Day 1

  4. Scientific Questions • Scientific investigations begin with scientific questions – questions that can be studied through observation, testing and analysis.

  5. Common phrases in scientific questions: • What is …? What causes …? How does …? • When …? How long …? • Why …? What happens if …? • How are two things alike and different? • Which works better …? What is the best way to …?

  6. Not all questions are scientific questions – a question that asks for an opinion is not a scientific question. • A scientific question can be answered by making observations, conducting tests and analyzing information.

  7. Designing and Conducting Investigations • The scientific method is a process that guides the search for answers to a scientific question. • After posing a question, a scientist generates a hypothesis – a possible explanation or tentative answer to the question.

  8. A scientist uses the hypothesis to design a fair test to study the question. A fair test examines only one factor, or variable, at a time. A variable is the factor that might affect the outcome of the test. There are two kinds of variables:

  9. Independent or Manipulated Variable – the one that the scientist changes or manipulates. • Dependent or Responding Variable – responds to changes in the independent variable & measures the effects (if any) of the independent variable.

  10. A reliable experiment includes both a control group and an experimental group. The control group shows what happens if there is no change in the independent variable. The experimental group has conditions identical to those of the control group except that the independent variable is changed.

  11. Tables, charts, graphs and other visual models are used to organize data to make it easier to interpret.

  12. Lab Safety Rules • Know the locations of the first aid kit, eyewash, shower and fire equipment. • Wear eye protection whenever glassware or solutions are heated or when fumes may be present. Avoid wearing contact lenses. Use goggles and aprons when indicated by the instructor.

  13. Assume all chemicals are dangerous. Read the labels on chemical bottles and make sure you understand safety precautions. Clean spills from skin and surfaces immediately. Dispose of chemicals properly. • Many chemicals are flammable. Do not use them near open flames. Avoid inhaling chemical fumes.

  14. No eating, drinking or smoking in the lab. Never touch any lab equipment with your mouth. • Avoid wearing excessively loose clothing and jewelry. Long hair should be tied back. Do not wear sandals or open-toe shoes.

  15. Come to the lab prepared for the experiments you will be doing. Uncertainty can be dangerous! If you are not sure about a procedure, ask you instructor before proceeding. • Absolutely no horseplay. IMMEDIATELY report any and all incidents including spills, broken glass or personal injuries, however minor, to your instructor.

  16. Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors • Biotic = living (plants, animals, bacteria, fungus, protists) • Abiotic = non-living (temp, water, soil, weather, rocks, sunlight, etc)

  17. Ecological Organization • Organism ~ one member of one species • Population ~ all members of one species in a given area • Community ~ all populations in a given area • Ecosystem ~ all members of community plus abiotic factors in the area • Biome ~ group of ecosystems with same climate and organisms

  18. Water Cycle

  19. Carbon Cycle

  20. Nitrogen Cycle

  21. Succession • Primary Succession = colonization of NEW land by pioneer species until a climax community is reached. • Lava flow  lichens  mosses  grasses  shrubs  trees

  22. Secondary Succession = existing community is destroyed and a new one begins to form • Occurs more quickly than primary succession because soil is already present and seeds were left behind • Forest  Fire  mosses  grasses  shrubs  trees

  23. Ecosystem Relationships • Niche vs. Habitat • If an organism’s habitat is its address, its niche is its occupation.

  24. Competition • Organisms of same or different species try to use same resource at same place during same time. • Competition can be reduced by developing different niches. • Ex. 3 species can easily live in same tree if one eats leaves, one eats bark and another eats the flowers.

  25. Predator-Prey • Organism doing killing = predator • Organism being killed = prey

  26. Symbiosis – “living together” • Mutualism – both species benefit from the relationship • Flowers may feed on insects, which may in turn disperse pollen to other flowers • Commensalism – one species benefits and the other is unaffected by the relationship • Barnacles attach to the skin of a whale to catch more food particles

  27. Parasitism – one species benefits and the other is harmed by the relationship • Tapeworms live inside a human intestine and feed from the human

  28. 1. the owl is a nocturnal hunter of small mammals, insects, and other birds. An owl is an example of a/an • Producer • Omnivore • Carnivore • decomposer

  29. 1. Plants use nitrogen to… • Make sugar • Attract pollinators • Make proteins and nucleic acids • Transport water to their leaves

  30. 2. In the nitrogen cycle, bacteria • Convert nitrogen to ammonia • Convert nitrogen to animal protein • Cause lightning strikes • Convert nitrogen to plant protein

  31. 1. Man-of-war fish cluster around the venomous tentacles of jelly fish to escape larger predators. The presence of the man-of-war fish does not harm or benefit the jellyfish. This type of relationship is called… • Parasitism • Commensalism • Succession • mutualism

  32. 2. Red foxes are nocturnal and live in meadows and forest edges. They are predators to small mammals, amphibians, and insects. The scraps that red foxes leave behind provide food for scavengers and decomposers. The preceding sentences describe the red fox’s… • Community • Prey • Niche • Food web

  33. 3. a symbiotic relationship means • The energy cycle is not involved • No one benefits • The solar system is involved • One of both parties benefit

  34. Ecology and Evolution Day 2

  35. Natural Selection and Evolution • Theory of Natural Selection • Proposed by Charles Darwin in 19th Century.

  36. Conclusions were based on his observations of organisms on the Galapagos Islands. • Climates on islands varied greatly, elevation and moisture were also varied on several islands. • Tortoises and Finches were very different on each island – suited to the environment in which they were living.

  37. Wrote book On the Origin of the Species in 1859. • Theory includes the following ideas: • Most organisms produce more offspring than are able to survive. • This results in competition for resources such as food and living space.

  38. Although the offspring are similar, some will have variations that make them better able to survive. Those that are unsuccessful at competition die out. Those with favorable variations reproduce and pass the favorable variations on to their offspring.

  39. Over time, favorable variations are found in more and more offspring. A trait that improves an organism’s chance for survival and reproduction is called an adaptation. A new species may develop or evolve in this way.

  40. Results of Evolution • Gradualism – evolution occurs a little at a time over a long period of time. • This is what Darwin believed occurred in natural selection.

  41. Punctuated Equilibrium – evolution occurs in spurts; rapid changes and then long periods of no change at all. • Results from sudden changes in the environment.

  42. Extinction – end of a species. • Occurs when environmental changes occur too quickly for organisms to adapt. • 99% of all species that have ever lived are thought to be extinct.

  43. Speciation – the evolutionary process in which a new species is formed. • Geographic isolation – a population is divided by a barrier into two geographically separated populations that can no longer reach each other to breed.

  44. Natural selection on each side of the barrier causes two separated populations to become genetically different. • When the populations come into contact again, they can no longer reproduce

  45. Behavioral isolation – individuals within a population may have differences in courtship rituals or other types of behaviors. • Differences among individuals causes them to choose specific, nonrandom mates. • Continual, nonrandom mating causes individuals to become genetically different. • Eventually, two species coexist.

  46. Evidence of Evolution • Fossils • Shows the changes between species that lived in the past and those that live today. • As a result, scientists have often been able to use fossils to reconstruct the relationships or evolutionary link between extinct species and their modern relatives.

  47. Anatomy – many species have a common physical, or anatomical structure. From comparative studies, it is possible to determine whether two different species developed from the same ancestor or whether their body parts developed independently.

  48. Energy Flow • Producers (autotrophs) • Use sunlight to make their food and energy through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis • Only plants and some bacteria/algae are autotrophic

  49. Consumers (heterotrophs) • Must acquire their energy from other organisms • Herbivores = eat plants only • Carnivores = eat animals only • Omnivores = eat both plants and animals • Scavengers = eat dead or decaying plants and animals • Decomposers = break down dead or decaying plants or animals

  50. Feeding Relationships • Food Chains = series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten • Arrow shows the direction of energy transfer in the food chain • Ex. Grass  Grasshopper  Mouse  Snake  Hawk • Food web = links all food chains together in an ecosystem