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EECS 290S: Network Information Flow

EECS 290S: Network Information Flow

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EECS 290S: Network Information Flow

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  1. EECS 290S: Network Information Flow Anant Sahai David Tse TexPoint fonts used in EMF: AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

  2. Logistics • Anant Sahai: 267 Cory (office hours in 258 Cory), sahai@eecs. Office hours: Mon 4-5pm and Tue 2:30-3:30pm. • David Tse, 257 Cory (enter through 253 Cory), dtse@eecs. Office hours: Tue 10-11am, and Wed 9:30-10:30am. • Prerequisite: some background in information theory, particularly for the second half of the course. • Evaluations: • Two problem sets (10%) • Take-home midterm (15%) • In-class participation and a lecture (25%) • Term paper/project (50%)

  3. Logistics • Text: • Raymond Yeung, Information Theory and Network Coding, preprint available at http://iest2.ie.cuhk.edu.hk/~whyeung/post/main2.pdf. • Papers • References • T. Cover and J. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory, 2nd edition.

  4. Classical Information Theory • Source has entropy rate H bits/sample. • Channel has capacity C bits/sample. • Reliable communication is possible iff H < C. • Information is like fluid passing through a pipe. • How about for networks? A Mathematical Theory of Communication 1948

  5. General Problem • Each source is observed by some nodes and needs to be sent to other nodes • Question: Under what conditions can the sources be reliably sent to their intended nodes?

  6. D S Simplest Case • Single-source-single-destination (single unicast flow) • All links are orthogonal and non-interfering (wireline) (Ford-Fulkerson 1956) • Applies to commodities or information. • Applies even if each link is noisy. • Fluid through pipes analogy still holds.

  7. Extensions • More complex traffic patterns • More complex signal interactions.

  8. Multicast • Single source needs to send the same information to multiple destinations. • What choices can we make at node w? • One slave cannot serve two masters. • Or can it? s b b 1 2 b b t u 1 2 w b b 1 2 x y z

  9. Multicast • Picking a single bit does not achieve the min-cut of both destinations s b b 1 2 b b t u 1 2 w b b 1 2 b 1 x y z b b 1 1

  10. Network coding • Needs to combine the bits and forward equations. • Each destination collects all the equations and solves for the unknown bits. • Can achieve the min-cut bound simultaneously for both destinations. s b b 1 2 b b t u 1 2 w b b 1 2 b + b 1 2 x y z b + b b + b 1 2 1 2

  11. Other traffic patterns • Multiple sources send independent information to the same destination. • Single source sending independent information to several destinations. • Multiple sources each sending information to their respective destinations. • The last two problems are not easy due to interference

  12. D S relays Complex Signal Interactions: Wireless Networks • Key properties of wireless medium: broadcast and superposition. • Signals interact in a complex way. • Standard physical-layer model: linear model with additive Gaussian noise.

  13. Gaussian Network Capacity: Known Results Tx Rx point-to-point (Shannon 48) Tx 1 Rx1 Rx Tx Tx 2 Rx 2 broadcast (Cover, Bergmans 70’s) (Weintgarten et al 05) multiple-access (Alshwede, Liao 70’s)

  14. What We Don’t Know Unfortunately we don’t know the capacity of most other Gaussian networks. Tx 1 Rx 1 Tx 2 Rx 2 Interference (Best known achievable region: Han & Kobayashi 81) Relay S D relay (Best known achievable region: El Gamal & Cover 79)

  15. Bridging between Wireline and Wireless Models • There is a huge gap between wireline and Gaussian channel models: • signal interactions • Noise • Approach: deterministic channel models that bridge the gap by focusing on signal interactions and forgoing the noise.

  16. Two-way relay example B A A B B B A A R R R R b1 1) b2 2) RAB=RBA=1/4 b1 3) b2 4)

  17. Network coding exploits broadcast medium A B A B A B R R b1 1) b2 2) b1b2 3) RAB=RBA=1/3

  18. Nature does the coding via superposition A B A B b1b2 b2 b1 1) b1b2 2) RAB=RBA=1/2 But what happens when the signal strengths of the two links are different?