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## Network Information Flow

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**Network Information Flow**Nikhil Bhargava (2004MCS2650) Under the guidance of Prof. Naresh Sharma (Dept. of Electrical Engineering) Prof. S.N Maheshwari (Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering) IIT, Delhi**Overview of the Presentation**• Introduction to the Problem • Work done • Results and Conclusions • Future work • References**Introduction to the problem**• Aim is to improve the throughput in single/multiple source network multicast scenario. • Throughput will be low since conventional switching of information will time share the links (details to follow). • Could be improved by doing coding (i.e. XOR operations on the incoming bit streams) at nodes or vertices of the network graph. • Problem is to find the maximum information flow for a point/multi-point to multi-point multicast network.**Introduction to the problem (contd.)**• Each node in a conventional network functions as a switch which: • Either replicates information received • Forwards info from input link to output links • Network coding used to boost throughput. • In this approach, each node receives information from all the input links, encodes it (i.e. combines it by the XOR operations) and sends information to the output link.**Previous work**• Ahlswede et. al., in their seminal work [1] have introduced a new class of problems of finding maximum admissible coding rate region for a generic communication multicast network. • They gave a upper bound based on max-flow min-cut theorem for the information flow that could be achieved by network coding. • Note that in network coding, the flow is not preserved. • Max-flow min-cut theorem in graph theory literature is for information flow preserving networks.**Previous work (contd.)**• Li, Yeung, and Cai [2] showed that the multicast capacity can be achieved by linear network coding for acyclic networks i.e. networks having a graph with no cycles. • Yeung, Li, Cai, and Zhang in [4] have done an extensive survey on the theory of network coding.**Motivation for the problem**• Liang [6] have given a game theoretic approach to solve single source network switching for a given communication network. • Computed network coding gain from max-flow min-cut bound. • Based upon certain conditions on link capacities, a game matrix is constructed and solved to give the maximum flow using network switching. • The network considered is not general and there are no known ways to provide analytical solutions to maximum flow • It has to be done on a case by case basis.**Motivation for the problem**• There is no formal way to compute maximum flow for a generic network. • The game theory approach needs computation for each network on a case by case basis. • Need an alternative to determine network switching gain (i.e. maximum information flow by switching) for a single source multicast network. • Need to understand the problem of multi-source multi-sink network coding.**Network Coding**• Intermediate nodes transmit packets that are functions of the received packets. • Mostly linear functions are used. • Known result that linear functions are enough to achieve the max-flow min-cut bound for both cyclic and acyclic networks. • Can make the network robust to link failures. • Peer-to-peer multicast file sharing network • Wireless Networks, sensor, adhoc, mobile.**Work done**• Started analyzing butterfly network [1] to find its switching gap. • Switching gap for a network is defined as the ratio of maximum achievable information rate using network coding (NC) to that of network switching (NS). • Enumerated min-cuts and calculated NC using max-flow min-cut theorem**Enumerated multicast routes for each sink and created a game**matrix for it • Solved the matrix to get maximum achievable information rate due to network switching. • Calculated switching gap and analyzed it for different cases of link capacities. • Extended the network by taking its dual and triple version and then analyzed each of them.**Min-cuts for one sink in Singular Symmetric Butterfly**network**The sub graph for sink t1 has following 7 s-t cuts**• {(s,a), (s,b)} = 2w1 • {(s,a), (b,c)} = w1+w2 • {(s,a), (a,c), (d,t1)} = 2w2+w3 • {(a, t1), (a,c), (b,c)} = w1+w2+w5 • {(s,a), (a,c), (c,d)} = w1+w2+w4 • {(a, t1), (c,d)} = w3+w4 • {(a, t1), (d, t1)} = w3+w5**The sub graph for sink t2 has following 7 s-t cuts**• {(s,a), (s,b)} = 2w1 • {(s,b), (a,c)} = w1+w2 • {(b, t2), (a,c), (b,c)} = 2w2+w3 • {(d, t2), (s,b), (b,c)} = w1+w2+w5 • {(s,b), (b,c), (c,d)} = w1+w2+w4 • {(b, t2), (c,d)} = w3+w4 • {(b, t2), (d, t2)} = w3+w5**Max. Information flow due to network coding**• Assuming following conditions on link capacities • w1<w2 • w1<w3 • w4<w5 Maximum information flow due to network coding is w1+min(w1, w4)**Rows denote edges and columns denote multicast routes.**• It has nine edges and 7 multicast routes • Edges (s,a); (s,a) and (c,d) are dominating edges (a,t1),(a,c); (b,t2),(b,c) and (d, t1), (d, t2) respectively. • Maximum information flow due to network switching is (2w1+min(2w1, w4))/2 • Switching gap comes out to be 2(w1+min(w1, w4))/(2w1+min(2w1, w4)) • In case all edge capacities are equal, switching gap comes out to be 4/3**Results**• I have analyzed special cases of Ahlswede’s butterfly network to find switching gap. • Used game theory to calculate the maximum information flow using switching case. • Based upon observations for singular, dual and triple version of the above network, gave an intuitive result for generic class of above network • Game theory principles fails to solve the matrix for generic case.**Conclusions**• For the chosen class of networks • The max-flow min-cut bound remains constant. • Information flow achieved by network switching decreases as one increases the size of the network. • Thus overall switching gap increases • Network coding becomes more useful for large graphs.**Future Work**• Find network switching gain using min-cut trees for single source and later multi-source networks (open problem). • Find network coding gain for multi-source multicast network (open problem).**References**[1] Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.-Y. Li, and R. W. Yeung, “Network information flow,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 12041216, July 2000. [2] S.-Y. Li, R. W. Yeung, and N. Cai, “Linear network coding,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. IT-49, no. 2, pp. 371381, Feb. 2003. [3] Christina Fragouli, JeanYves Le Boudec, Jorg Widmer, “Network Coding: An Instant Primer,” LCA-REPORT- 2005-010. [4] R. W. Yeung, S.-Y. Li, N. Cai, and Z.Zhang,“Theory of network coding,” submitted to Foundations and Trends in Commun. and Inform. Theory, preprint, 2005.**References**[5] C.K Ngai and R. W. Yeung, “Network switching gap of combination networks,” in 2004 IEEE Inform. Theory Workshop, 24-29, Oct 2004, pp.283-287. [6] Xue-Bin Liang, “On the Switching Gap of Ahlswede- Cai-Li-Yeung’s Single-Source Multicast Network,” 2006 IEEE Int. Symp. Inform. Theory, Seattle, Washington, USA, July 2006. [7] Xue-Bin Liang, “Matrix Games in the Multicast Networks: Maximum Information Flows With Network Switching,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 52, no. 6, June 2006. [8] G. Owen, Game Theory, 3rd edition, San Diego: Academic Press, 1995.