II. The Composer, Patron, and Public in the Classical Period Journal Entry What do you think of when you think “Classical”?
Haydn, Mozart & Beethoven • Haydn • Content to spend most of his life serving a wealthy aristocratic family, considered a skilled servant
Haydn, Mozart & Beethoven • Mozart • Born 24 years after Haydn • Could not bear being treated as a servant, left his court position and went to Vienna to try his luck as a freelance musician. • Successful and popular for a while, popularity declined, died in debt
Haydn, Mozart & Beethoven • Beethoven • Only a few years after Mozart’s death, Beethoven was able to work as an independent musician in Vienna
18th Century Middle Class • As 18th century advanced, more people made more money • Merchants, doctors, government officials could afford larger homes, finer clothes and better food • Prospering middle class wanted more than material goods such as theater, literature, and music • Middle class had great influence on music; palace concerts were usually closed to the public so they organized public concerts with an admission price.
18th Century Middle Class • Not only did they want music in public, but they also wanted it at home • They felt their sons and daughters deserved music lessons as much as children of aristocrats did. • If middle class children played instruments well enough, they might be invited to palaces and eventually marry into aristocracy. • Demand for printed music, instruments, and music lessons had vastly increased
Composing for the Middle Class • Composers of this time took middle class tastes into account • Wrote pieces easier for amateurs to play • Turned from serious to comic opera • Turned from heroic and mythological plots that the nobility enjoyed, and used middle class subjects and folk-like tunes. • Some comic operas even poked fun at nobility • Dance moves became less elegant and courtly, more vigorous and rustic
Composing for the Middle Class • Serious composition was flavored by folk and popular music • Composers sometimes used familiar tunes as themes for symphonies and variations
Vienna (1800 population c250,000) • One of the NEW music centers of Europe at this time • Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven all active there (not born there, however, they were drawn there to study) • Haydn and Mozart became close friends and influenced each other’s musical style • (Beethoven traveled to Vienna at 16 to play for Mozart, at 22 he returned to study with Haydn)
Vienna • Seat of the “Holy Roman empire” • (Reached across modern Austria, Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Czech Republic) • Cultural and commercial center with a cosmopolitan character • 4th largest city in Europe at this time
Vienna • Aristocrats from all over the empire would spend winters there, sometimes bringing their private orchestras with them. • Good orchestra was symbol of prestige • Much of nobility were excellent musicians
Vienna • Much music was heard in private concerts • Aristocrats and wealthy commoners played alongside professional musicians • Nobility often hired servants who could double as musicians
Outdoor music • Light and popular • Small street bands of wind and string players for garden parties or under windows of people likely to throw down money. • Haydn and Mozart both wrote music for this called divertimentos or serenades.
GROUP PRESENTATIONS Johann Christian BachAntonio Salieri Dominique Flyte Claire Chandler Nick Caban Ryan Kaminsky Kalyn Moore Anna Stamer Christoph William GluckPergolesi Emma Brown Aaron Brunnworth Taimoor Aziz Chris Pearson Bilal Aziz Jacob Burns Sami Greytak Phil Kosydor Muzio ClementiC.P.E. Bach Alec Camp Julian Harvey Blake Noud Nate Novak Andrew Drake Kieryn Beyerl