外 贸 英 语 函 电 Business English Correspondence
Basic Knowledge of Business Letter Writing Chapter One
Contents of Chapter 1 Section One Brief Introduction Section Two Good Writing Principles Section Three Structure of a Business Letter Section Four Layout of a Business Letter Section Five Addressing Envelopes Section Six Some Rules of Good Writing
Introduction of Business Letter Writing Section One
Steps of an all-round transaction 1 ways to look for new customersand explore new market enquiries and requests 2 quotations and offers 3 Conclusion of business letter
Steps of an all-round transaction Payment Execution of orders Packing，shipping and insurance 5 Complaint claim and adjustment 6 Other letter writing
I Brief Introduction • 1.Definition • English business correspondence refers to the letters , cables, telexes, faxes and e-mails dealing in international business, as well as in domestic trade, of course
Target the middle and senior students • Deal with business communication in the form of telexes, fax or letters • Combine characteristics of English and international trade • Involve a lot of special trade terms and customized sentences
2. Aim • The purpose of this course is to help you learn how to write good business letters by using up-to-date expressions in the simplest possible language.
3. Features • 1. It has its unique language style and jargons ; • e.g. We are in the market for silk blouses and should be pleased if you could kindly quote us your keenest prices for the goods below • 2. It is full of business terminations and abbreviations; • e.g. Offer quotation order counteroffer letter of credit CIF FOB • 3. There is a close relations between EBC and international trade • e.g. ASA :AMERICAN STANDARD ASSOCIATION
What do you expect to get after learning this course? • 1. Know how to write proper business English letters; • (writing styles, language, writing techniques, structure and layout)
2. Know how to communicate and operate in International Business; (International Business knowledge and techniques, technical terms and expressions, sentences pattern )
Requirements to the Writer If a business letter is to achieve its purpose, the writer should have （1）a good command of standard English （精通标准英语）； （2）knowledge of business theory and practice （通晓贸易理论与实务）； （3）knowledge of technical terms （通晓专业术语）； （4）knowledge of psychology （掌握人的心理）； （5）skills in salesmanship （掌握熟练的推销技巧）。
Section Two Principles of Business Letter Writing
II. Writing Principles---Seven Cs • 1. Completeness 完整 • 2. Concreteness 具体 • 3. Clearness 清楚 • 4. Conciseness 简洁 • 5. Courtesy 礼貌 • 6. Consideration 体谅 • 7. Correctness 正确
II. Writing Principles--- Completeness. • 1.Completeness完整 • contains all the necessary information to the readers (the counterpart or the public) and answers all the questions and requirements put forward by the readers. • 包含所有必须的信息。
II. Writing Principles---Concreteness • 2. Concreteness 具体 • be specific, definite and persuasive instead of being vague, general and abstract. • 内容要具体、明确而不能模糊、抽象、泛泛而指。(具体数字描述)
e.g.-- We wish to confirm our telegram yesterday. --We wish to confirm our telegram of march 29,1999.--The brakes can stop a car within a short distance.--These type SMO2 power brakes can stop a 4-ton car traveling 65 miles an hour
II. Writing Principles---Clearness • 3. Clearness 清楚(clarity) • to make sure that what you write is so clear that it can’t be misunderstood. • 要确保意思清楚地向对方表达而不会产生误解.
Notice: • 1) Avoid using the words, and sentences equivocal in meaning ; • 2) Pay attention to the position of the modifier; • 3) Pay attention to the object of the pronoun and the relations between the relative pronoun and the antecedent; • 注意代词的指代对象和关系代词和先行词的关系
II. Writing Principles---Clearness • 4) Pay attention to the rationality in logic, the variety in sentence structure, the compact in plot and coherence in meanings. • 注意逻辑上的合理句子结构上的多变情节上的紧凑和意义上的连贯 • 5)Pay attention to the logicality of the full text. • 注意全文的逻辑性
II. Writing Principles---Clearness • . 1 不要用模棱两可的表达 • -- As to the steamer sailing from Shanghai to Los Angeles, we have bimonthlydirect services. • bimonthly: a. twice a month 一月两次; b. every two months 两月一次 -- We have a direct sailing from Shanghai to Los Angeles every two months.
II. Writing Principles---Clearness • 缩写 • 除了少数国际商业界确认的缩写如CIF、FOB等外应尽量避免使用缩写尤其是机构或组织名称最好写出它的全部字母。
数字不同国家的人对某些数字的表达方式不一样例如英、美两国对billion的理解不一样。所以最安全的办法是数字和文字同时使用UK:1,000,000,000,000 US:1,000,000,000数字不同国家的人对某些数字的表达方式不一样例如英、美两国对billion的理解不一样。所以最安全的办法是数字和文字同时使用UK:1,000,000,000,000 US:1,000,000,000
E.G.• $10575.9 (ten thousand five hundred and seventy-five dollars, ninety cents.)
介词• The price has been increased to$20. 到• The price has been increased by$20. 了• The price has been increased from$20 从
II. Writing Principles---Clearness • . 2 注意修饰词的位置Com pare the following three pairs of sentences: • Pair 1:--We can supply 50 tons of the item only; • -- We can only supply 50 tons of the item. • --我们只提供这种商品50吨限制所供品牌---我们提供这种商品仅限50吨限量
II. Writing Principles---Clearness • Pair2: • --The L/C must reach us not later than September 1st for arranging shipment. • --The L/C must reach us for arranging shipment not later than September 1st.
Pair 3:-- Please let us know what you wish us to do about this matter as soon as possible.-- Please let us as soon as possible know what you wish us to do about this matter.
II. Writing Principles---Clearness • Pair 2 • --为安排装船信用证不得迟于9月1日到我方。 • --信用证必须到我方以便不迟于9月1日安排装船。 • Pair 3: • --请告知贵方要我方为此事尽快做些什么。 • --请尽快告知贵方要我方为此
II. Writing Principles---Clearness • E.g.3 写清楚代词的指代对象 • --They informed Messrs Smith & Brown that they would receive a reply in a few days. • -- They informed Messrs Smith & Brown that the latter would receive a reply in a few days.
E.g. 4 分词的逻辑主语和句子的逻辑主语一致 • -- Being a registered accountant, I’m sure you can help us. • -- Being a registered accountant, you can help us. • -- As you are a registered accountant, I’m sure you can help us.
II. Writing Principles---Clearness • E.g. 5 (注意句子结构的多变) • -- We have received your letter of April 4. We are sorry for the wrong dispatch. We will do something about it. • --Thank you for your letter of April 4. We regret that we have dispatched the wrong goods and will do something for compensation.
E.g. 6 (注意意义上的连贯) • -- We wrote a letter. It was addressed to Mr. Henry. He is the sales manager. • -- We wrote a letter to Mr. Henry. the sales manager.
II. Writing Principles---Clearness • E.g. 7 (注意情节上的紧凑) • -- We have received your letter of July 1st and it contained a complete set of shipping documents. • -- We have received your letter of July 1stcontaining a complete set of shipping documents • E.g.8 (注意全文的逻辑性)
II. Writing Principles---Conciseness • 4. Conciseness 简洁 • clearly express what you would do in a short and simple style of writing as possible as you can • 言简意赅尽量节省双方时间。
Notice: 1) Make a long story short and try to avoid wordiness. 长话短说尽量避免啰嗦e.g. at this time: now come to a decision: decide during the time that: while
II. Writing Principles---Conciseness • 2.Avoid using the general and out-of-date commercial jargon and try to express your idea in modern English. • 避免笼统、陈旧的商业术语尽量使用现代英语来表达 • 3Avoid unnecessary repeat • 避免不必要的重复 • 4Control the number of the words, build effective sentences and paragraphs. • 控制字数构造有效句
II. Writing Principles---Courtesy • 5. Courtesy 礼貌 • not mere politeness, be sincere and tactful. • 展现自己的诚意能够增强贸易往来关系。
Guideless: • 1) Change the commanding tone into requesting tone • 将命令式改为请求式将祈使句改为will 或would开头的一般疑问句 • e.g. • --Tell us more detailed information on your requirements • -- will you ….\will you please…\would you…
II. Writing Principles---Courtesy • 2.Use the past subjunctive form 使用虚拟语气 • e.g.--We would ask you to make prompt shipment. • 3Use mitigation and avoid overemphasizing your own idea or irritating your partner 使用缓和法避免过分强调和刺激 • e.g. • We are afraid that…, we would\may\might say…, It seems to us that…, we would suggest that…, It appears that… • --We cannot deliver the goods all at one time.
II. Writing Principles---Courtesy • 4.passive voice should be used accordingly. • 适当使用被动语态 • e.g. • --You didn’t enclose the price lists in your letter. • --The price lists was not enclosed in your letter.
5Try to avoid using the words with forcing tone or arousing unpleasantness 尽量避免使用带有强迫语气和引起不快的词语 • e.g. • --We must refuse your offer. • --We regret that we are unable to accept your offer
II. Writing Principles---Courtesy • 6.Use the words or expressions with the meaning of joy, thanks and regret etc. • 使用表示高兴、感激和遗憾的词语 • e.g. • -- It is a pleasure for us to sign a sales contract. • --We are pleased\glad\ happy\delighted that you are willing to establish business relations with us. • --We are sorry to say that we haven’t received your L/C in time.
II. Writing Principles---Consideration • 6.Consideration 体谅 • put yourself in the position of the recipient, taking into consideration his demand, hope, interests. • 多考虑对方给对方留下好的印象。
Notice: • 1) Take the recipient’s attitude: you attitude • 采取考虑收信人的态度即“你们”的态度。 • e.g. • —We allow a 5% discount for cash payment.为付现款我们给5%的折扣。 • — You earn a 5% discount when you pay cash. • 你付现款可赚5%的折扣。
What is the “YOU” Attitude? • • 读信者往往会问：What’s in it for me (the reader)? • • YOU Attitude: Focuses on Reader • • Emphasizes what the receiver wants to know • 读者想知道的； • • How reader will be affected by message • 读者受到的影响； • • Put yourself in their shoes • 为读者设身处地着想；
Which letter is better？ • Dear Mr. Hua: • We are in receipt of and would like to thank you for your letter and catalogue of June 14, 2011. After close examination we have come to the conclusion that your products are of no interest to us but we wish you every success in your future endeavors. • Sincerely,
Dear Mr. Hua: • Thank you for your letter and catalogue sent on July 14, 2011. We appreciate your interest in our company though your products fall out of our line for the time being. We wish you every success in your future endeavors. • Yours Sincerely,
2)Focusing on the positive approach “Positive” —— We feel sure that you will be entirely satisfied. “Negative” —— We do not believe you will have cause for dissatisfaction