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Botany for Master Gardeners

Botany for Master Gardeners

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Botany for Master Gardeners

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  1. Botany for Master Gardeners Kim Conway Texas AgriLife Extension

  2. Carl Linneaus (1707-1778) Binomial nomenclature Based on flower parts Family Genus Species Naming Plants

  3. Plant Categories • Angiosperms • Monocots • Dicots • Gymnosperms • Conifers

  4. Life Cycles • Annuals • Biennials • Perennials • herbaceous • woody

  5. Plant Parts & Functions • Sexual • flower • Asexual • leaves • stems • roots

  6. Roots • Primary Roots • Taproot • Lateral Roots • Fibrous

  7. Roots • Knees • Buttressed • Aerial

  8. Tuberous Roots • No Nodes

  9. Root Structure endodermis epidermis phloem root hair pericycle endodermis casparian strip meristem rootcap

  10. Dicot Root

  11. Monocot Root

  12. Stems • Support • Vascular System • Buds • Leaf Bud • Flower Bud • Terminal • Lateral/Axillary • Adventitious • Leaves

  13. Meristems • Primary Growth • apical meristem or apex • Secondary Growth • Vascular cambium or cambium

  14. epidermis vascular bundle phloem xylem bundle sheath Primary Growth - Monocot

  15. Monocot Stem

  16. Primary Growth – dicot or gymnosperm cortex epidermis pith phloem xylem

  17. Dicot Stem

  18. Secondary Growth - dicots periderm phloem cambium xylem 1 pith ray 2 3 crushed cortex and past year’s phloem

  19. Modified Stems - Crowns & Stolons

  20. Modified Stems - Spurs

  21. Modified Stems Bulb Corm Tuber Bulb Rhizome

  22. Types of Leaves • Scale leaves • Seed leaves • Spines • Thorns • Tendrils • Brachts • Needles • Simple

  23. Leaves Absorb sunlight for photosynthesis

  24. Leaf Layers

  25. Stomates

  26. Pinnate Parallel Palmate Leaf Venation

  27. Double Pinnate Compound Pinnate Compound Palmate Compound Simple Leaf Types

  28. Linear Elliptical Ovate Lanceolate Cordate Leaf Shapes

  29. Leaf Types

  30. Leaf Margins • Entire • Sinuate • Crenate • Dentate • Serrate • Incised • Lobed • Cleft

  31. whorled Leave Arrangement • alternate • opposite • whorled

  32. Sexual Plant Parts & Functions (Flowers)

  33. Petal { Stigma } Pistil Style Anther Stamen Ovary Filament Sepal Ovule Receptacle Parts of the Flower

  34. Types of Flowering Plants • Monoecious = 1 House • Corn • Pecan • Dioecious = 2 Houses • Holly • Junipers

  35. Complete = Pistil, Stamen, Petal, Sepals Incomplete = Missing One Perfect = Pistil & Stamen Flowers

  36. How Seeds Form Pollen Germination • Pollination • Pollen tube • Fertilization Growth of Pollen Tube toward Ovule

  37. Types of Flowers • Solitary - one flower per stem • Inflorescence - a cluster of flowers • racemous - indeterminate (flower from the bottom up)

  38. Racemous Flowers • Spike - flowers attached to peduncle - gladiolus

  39. Racemous Flowers • Raceme - individual flowers attached by tiny stems to the peduncle • Bluebonnet

  40. Racemous Flowers • Catkin • Mulberry • birch

  41. Racemous Flowers • Corymb • yarrow

  42. Racemous Flowers • Umbel – • dill, • onion • queen anne’s lace

  43. Racemous Flowers • Head – • sunflower • daisy

  44. Flower Types • cyme - determinate - flower from the top down - top florets open first • dischasium cyme - baby’s breath • helicoid cyme - freesia • scorpioid - tomato (alternate)

  45. Types of Inflorescence

  46. Fruit • Fruit consists of the fertilized and mature ovules (seeds) and the ovary wall.

  47. exocarp mesocarp pericarp endocarp seed dry fruit (corn) fleshy fruit (peach) Parts of the Fruit