newbery award winning books 1922 2008 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Newbery Award Winning Books 1922-2008 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Newbery Award Winning Books 1922-2008

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 42

Newbery Award Winning Books 1922-2008 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

208 Views
Download Presentation
Newbery Award Winning Books 1922-2008
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Newbery Award Winning Books 1922-2008 How do They Portray Disabilities? Melissa Leininger, B.S. Casey Pehrson, B.S. Tina Taylor Dyches, Ed.D. Mary Anne Prater, Ph.D. Brigham Young University Counseling Psychology & Special Education

  2. Award-Winning Literature Available and Accessible Most school media centers and public libraries have many of the Newbery Medal books on their shelves (Dyches, Prater, & Jensen, 2006; Hegel, 2007) Widely Read Tend to be popular due to their good exposure and are expected to have a wider influence than that of other books (Friedman & Cataldo, 2002; Peterson & Karnes, 1976) Recommended Educators and school personnel are encouraged to incorporate award-winning literature into their classrooms, offices, and libraries (Ouzts et al., 2003; Prater, 2000) Timeless Award-winning books get published and are more likely to stay in circulation (Hill, White, & Brodie, 2001) and have a lasting effect on readers (Peterson & Karnes, 1976)

  3. 9.2% of students ages 6-21 received special education and related services (USDE, 2009) 13.5% of students pre-K through 12th grade (NCES, 2007) 96% of students with disabilities were educated in regular school buildings (USDE, 2007) Books that contain characters with disabilities vary greatly in their portrayal of individuals with disabilities(Dyches & Prater, 2005; Dyches, Prater, & Cramer; 2001; Dyches, Prater, & Jenson, 2006; Prater, 2003) Students with Disabilities

  4. Bibliotherapy about Disabilities for Children without Disabilities Students with and without disabilities are interacting in schools on a daily basis Children and adolescents without disabilities need structured opportunities to learn about individuals with disabilities. What they know about disabilities generally comes from the media which frequently depicts individuals with disabilities inaccurately or incompletely, leaving students with mistaken ideas about these individuals (Dyches et al., 2006; Johnson et al., 2000)

  5. Bibliotherapy about Disabilities for Children without Disabilities EDUCATE Students with and without disabilities are interacting in schools on a daily basis Children and adolescents without disabilities need structured opportunities to learn about individuals with disabilities. What they know about disabilities generally comes from the media which frequently depicts individuals with disabilities inaccurately or incompletely, leaving students with mistaken ideas about these individuals (Dyches et al., 2006; Johnson et al., 2000)

  6. Bibliotherapy about Disabilities for Children with Disabilities When students with disabilities read about a character in a book that experiences similar difficulties, they are able to recognize that they are not alone, which is essential, as young people often feel alone when experiencing a specific problem (Forgan, 2002) Identification with characters similar to themselves may help students with disabilities to acquire coping skills, release emotions, gain new insights and directions in life, learn decision-making skills, develop self-esteem, meet unique social and personal needs, increase interpersonal competence, and discover new ways of interacting with peers and adults(Cook, et al., 2006; Friedman & Catalso, 2002; Gladding & Gladding, 1991; Lenkowsky, 1987; Pardeck, 1991; Pehrsson & McMillen, 2005; Stamps, 2003)

  7. Bibliotherapy about Disabilities for Children with Disabilities Empower When students with disabilities read about a character in a book that experiences similar difficulties, they are able to recognize that they are not alone, which is essential, as young people often feel alone when experiencing a specific problem (Forgan, 2002) Identification with characters similar to themselves may help students with disabilities to acquire coping skills, release emotions, gain new insights and directions in life, learn decision-making skills, develop self-esteem, meet unique social and personal needs, increase interpersonal competence, and discover new ways of interacting with peers and adults(Cook, et al., 2006; Friedman & Catalso, 2002; Gladding & Gladding, 1991; Lenkowsky, 1987; Pardeck, 1991; Pehrsson & McMillen, 2005; Stamps, 2003)

  8. Bibliotherapy about Disabilities for the Inclusive Classroom Providing an introduction to the different types of disabilities that may be present in the classroom, school, or community can help students to become less fearful and more accepting and appreciative of individual differences (Iaquinta & Hipsky, 2006) and to develop an empathic understanding of others (Pehrsson & McMillen, 2005) Bibliotherapy can open opportunities for discussion of individual experiences, from which all students can learn and benefit

  9. Bibliotherapy about Disabilities for the Inclusive Classroom Enhance Providing an introduction to the different types of disabilities that may be present in the classroom, school, or community can help students to become less fearful and more accepting and appreciative of individual differences (Iaquinta & Hipsky, 2006) and to develop an empathic understanding of others (Pehrsson & McMillen, 2005) Bibliotherapy can open opportunities for discussion of individual experiences, from which all students can learn and benefit

  10. Statement of Problem Bibliotherapy helps children and adolescents to understand individuals with disabilities and individuals with disabilities to understand themselves (Iaquinta & Hipsky, 2006; McCarty & Chalmers, 1997; Prater, Dyches, et al., 2006) Newbery books represent quality literature, but these books have not been systematically evaluated for their portrayal of characters with disabilities (ALA; Dyches et al., 2006; Friedman & Cataldo, 2002; Groce, 2002; Leal, Glascock, Mitchell, & Wasserman, 2000; Miguez & Goetting, 2006; Roberts, 2002) Before Newbery books are used for bibliotherapy, they need to be evaluated for their portrayal of characters with disabilities so teachers can choose books that appropriately, accurately, and positively depict characters with disabilities. This will encourage students’ awareness, understanding and acceptance of their classmates and peers with disabilities (Prater, Dyches, et al., 2006)

  11. Statement of Purpose The general purpose of this study is to examine the portrayal of characters with disabilities in Newbery Award and Honor books. More specifically, this study will examine what disabilities are portrayed, personal portrayals and social relationships of individuals with disabilities, and exemplary practices in these books.

  12. Research Questions • 1) Which disabilities are portrayed in Newbery Award and Honor books? • How are characters with disabilities portrayed in Newbery Award and Honor books? • 3) What exemplary practices are portrayed in relation to characters with disabilities in Newbery Award and Honor books? • (citizenship opportunities, presence of appropriate services and/or valued occupations for the character, and promotion of self-determination for the character) • 4) How are social relationships of characters with disabilities portrayed in Newbery Award and Honor books?

  13. Method Sample: Newbery Award and Honor books from 1922 to 2008 containing main or supporting characters with a disability according to IDEA classifications 50 books 63 characters with disabilities 17 Award, 33 Honor books Measures: Adaptation of Rating Scale for Quality Characterizations of Individuals with Disabilities in Children’s Literature (Dyches & Prater, 2000) Procedures: Content analysis using the updated Dyches & Prater (2000) rating scale; Identification of prominent themes regarding the portrayal of characters with disabilities and related practices; Inter-rater agreement on 46.7% of the books for 1975-2008 books Data analysis: Descriptive data and identification of themes; Characters evaluated according to today’s standards

  14. Newbery Books Featuring Characters With Disabilities (1922-1974)

  15. Newbery Books Featuring Characters With Disabilities (1975-2008)

  16. Personal Portrayal Disagree Neutral Agree 1. Portrays characteristics of disabilities accurately (e.g., abilities and disabilities are consistent with descriptions from IDEA, DSM IV, and/or ICD 10; abilities/disabilities are consistent throughout the story; if label is used, it is accurate and current). 2. Describes the character(s) with disabilities as realistic (e.g., not superhuman or subhuman; avoids miraculous cures). 3. Character(s) with disabilities are fully developed (e.g., credible, multidimensional, show change or development throughout the story). 4. Does not portray only disabilities of the character(s), but portrays abilities, interests, and strengths of the character(s) (e.g., avoids undue emphasis on the disability; characters have unique personalities, interests, and struggles that may not be related to the disability; characters experience success as well as failure). 5. Emphasizes similarities, rather than differences, between characters with and without disabilities (e.g., similar physical and personality characteristics are described with equal emphasis). 6. Uses nondiscriminatory language that avoids stereotypic portrayals (e.g., does not use language such as suffers from, afflicted with, stricken with, confined to a wheelchair). This criterion includes the use of person-first language (e.g., uses language such as person with mental retardation rather than retarded). • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3

  17. Exemplary Practices 1. Depicts character(s) with disabilities having full citizenship opportunities in integrated settings and/or activities (e.g., school, church, neighborhood, work, recreation/leisure). 2. Depicts character(s) with disabilities receiving services appropriate for their age, skill level, and interests (e.g., teaching strategies depicted meet the needs of the character; therapies needed are provided). 3. Depicts valued occupations for character(s) with disabilities (if appropriate) (e.g., vocations of their own choice according to their abilities and interests; wages paid are comparable to those without disabilities in similar vocations). 4. Promotes self-determination (e.g., character(s) are allowed to make decisions that impact their lives, solve their own problems, choose their own friends and activities as appropriate to their age and developmental level), where choices are similar to the types of choices given to nondisabled peers. • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3

  18. Social Interactions 1. Depicts character(s) with disabilities engaging in socially and emotionally reciprocal relationships (e.g., not always being cared for, but allowed to care for others; teaches and assists others) with a wide variety of persons (e.g., family, nondisabled peers, friends with disabilities, support personnel).   2. Depicts acceptance of the character(s) with disabilities (e.g., character isn’t helpless against ridicule, teasing, bullying, abuse; character is not just tolerated, but a valued member of a group; is part of the “in” group rather than on the fringe or on the outside). 3. Promotes empathy, not pity for the character(s) with disabilities (e.g., other characters act on their feelings to help in appropriate ways rather than just feeling sorry for the character with disabilities). 4. Portrays positive social contributions of person(s) with disabilities (e.g., contributes to more than emotional growth of other characters). 5. Promotes respect for the character(s) with disabilities (e.g., treated similar to others of same age, as appropriate; not “babied;” avoids condescending language and actions). • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3

  19. Sibling Relationships 1. Sibling(s) of the character(s) with disabilities experience a wide range of emotions, not just all positive or all negative emotions (e.g., pride, joy, respect, love, embarrassment, frustration, over identification, guilt, isolation, resentment, anxiety regarding achievement, fear of the future). 2. Sibling(s) of the character(s) with disabilities have opportunities for growth that are not typical for siblings of children without disabilities (e.g., maturity, self-concept, insight, tolerance, pride, vocational choices, advocacy, loyalty). 3. The sibling relationship is reciprocal, given the age and developmental differences between the siblings. 4. The sibling(s) are not given unusually burdensome household and family duties, but engage in family work that is typical for children of the same age and gender that do not have a sibling with disabilities. 5. The sibling(s) appear aware of the nature of the disability and its effects on the character with disabilities. • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3 • 1 2 3

  20. 1922-2008 Results Out of 371 Newbery Award and Honor books, 50 contained at least one character with a disability 40% of the books were published before 1975 and 60% of the books were published between 1975 and 2008 Three characters with illness-related OHI were disqualified Three characters were counted but not evaluated

  21. 1922-1974 Results • Disabilities Portrayed: • Orthopedic Impairment (9) • Visual Impairment (4) • Emotional Disturbance (4) • Mental Retardation (2) • Speech or Language Impairment (1) • Multiple Disabilities (1)

  22. 1922-1974 versus IDEA IDEA (2009)

  23. 1975-2008 Results • Most common: • Orthopedic Impairment • Emotional Disturbance • Mental Retardation • Least common: • Deaf-Blindness • Developmental Delay • Speech or Language Impairment • (TBI only disability not represented)

  24. 1975-2008 Results: RQ #1 Newbery (n=24) IDEA (USDE, 2009) Individuals Ages 6-21

  25. 1975-2008 Results: RQ #1 Most Common Disabilities Mental Retardation Specific Learning Disability Orthopedic Impairment Speech/Lang. Impairment Multiple Disabilities Mental Retardation Autism Other Health Impairment Newbery IDEA

  26. 1975-2008 Results: RQ #2 Personal Portrayal • Almost two-thirds (62.5%; n=25) were male • Over half (57.5%; n=23) were children or adolescents • Most (75.0%; n=30) were White • 12.5% Black (n=5) • 7.5% Hispanic (n=3) • 5.0% Asian (n=2)

  27. 1975-2008 Results: RQ #2 School-Age Characters (6-21 years old) 70.8% (n=17) male 67.2% male 83.3% (n=20) White 61.7% White 13.0% (n=3) Black 20.5% Black 4.3% (n=1) Hispanic 14.6% Hispanic Newbery IDEA

  28. 1975-2008 Results: RQ #2 • Most (87.5%; n=35) were supporting characters • All main characters were children or adolescents (12.5%; n=5) • Most characters (70.3%; n=26) received an overall acceptable rating (score of 2.0 or above)

  29. 1975-2008 Results: RQ #2 • Main focus of most books (76.7%; n=23) was to include a character with a disability whose presence and disability impacts the story • Focus of 23.3% of books (n=7) was to include a character with a disability whose presence impacts the story, but the disability is irrelevant • Few books (13.3%; n=4) were told from the point of view of the character with a disability • Other: 36.7% (n=11) • Omniscient: 50.0% (n=15) • Most books (76.7%; n=23) contained characters that lived in the U.S. • Only about half (51.7%; n=15) of books took place in the present day

  30. 1975-2008 Results: RQ #2 Personal Portrayal • Most (83.8% n=31) received an acceptable rating (≥ 2.0) • Average ratings improved over time • (1975-1990): 2.03 (n=9) • (1991-2008): 2.43 (n=28)

  31. 1975-2008 Results: RQ #2 • Highest Ratings • Specific Learning Disability • Visual Impairment • Orthopedic Impairment • Lowest Ratings • Mental Retardation • Emotional Disturbance

  32. 1975-2008 Results: RQ #3 Exemplary Practices Most (86.5%; n=32) received an acceptable rating Average ratings improved over time (1975-1990): 2.02 (n=9) (1991-2008): 2.47 (n=28)

  33. 1975-2008 Results: RQ #4 Social Interactions Almost two-thirds (64.9%; n=24) received an acceptable rating Average ratings improved over time (1975-1990): 1.91 (n=9) (1991-2008): 2.35 (n=28)

  34. 1975-2008 Results: RQ #4 Sibling Relationships s Almost all (91.7%; n=11) were portrayed positively Remained fairly constant over time (1975-1990): 2.40 (n=4) (1991-2008): 2.38 (n=8)

  35. Recommended Books Books to Use with Caution

  36. Discussion Discrepancies when comparing Newbery school-age characters to U.S. school population (disability & ethnicity) Mental retardation one of the most common disabilities (and commonly depicted), yet one of the least commonly positively portrayed Most characters were supporting Common theme of elimination of character with disability or of the disability itself through miraculous cures Characters with disabilities often used to facilitate growth of others Range of portrayal of characters, relationships, and exemplary practices

  37. Implications for Authors More characters from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds Depiction of disabilities commonly encountered in school settings today Positive depiction of emotional disturbance and mental retardation Depiction of more characters with disabilities as main characters that tell the story from their point of view Inclusion of more sibling relationships to help families Inclusion of characters whose disability is not the focus of the book

  38. Implications for Others • School professionals (e.g., teachers, school psychologists, librarians) can use this information to: • Discriminate which books to use in bibliotherapy • Teach historically about the portrayal of disabilities and compare to portrayal and practices today • Increase awareness and understanding

  39. Limitations Not all characters with disabilities may have been identified Possible bias in determination of qualifying characters Assessment instrument not tested for reliability and validity Assessed according to today’s standards

  40. Future Research Compare Newbery to Caldecott books Compare Newbery to other award-winning books Create guide for teachers to use in classroom

  41. Conclusion Care should be taken by parents and school professionals to choose books that accurately and positively portray characters with disabilities. By identifying with characters with disabilities, as well as learning from their unique experiences, students without disabilities can increase their understanding and acceptance of those with disabilities, and students with disabilities can understand themselves and develop life skills to work through their own challenges.

  42. Thank You! Melissa Leininger melissmybliss@gmail.com Casey Pehrson caseypehrson@yahoo.com