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Food Safety & Quality Assurance

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  1. Food Safety & Quality Assurance 2012

  2. All 4-H / FFA members who exhibit the following species need to be FSQA Certified • Beef • Dairy Cattle • Goats (Dairy & Meat) • Poultry (Chicken, Turkey, Duck, Geese, etc) • Rabbits • Sheep • Swine

  3. Recertify Annually • Junior members, grades 4 – 6, need to come every year. • Intermediates, grades 7 – 9 • Seniors, grades 10 - 12 • Intermediate and Senior members can attend an annual training or take the test-out option

  4. Testing Out of FSQA • Intermediates and Seniors may test out of attending yearly FSQA sessions. • To do so – they must take a 20 (Int.) or 30 (Sr.) question exam and receive a 70% passing score. • At one setting, they may take a different exam 3 times if necessary to pass. • Check with your county extension office for the testing dates / times and for any specific requirements for testing out.

  5. Resources • Iowa 4-H Food Safety & Quality Assurance Member Manual & Website • http://www.extension.iastate.edu/4h/projects/livestock/FSQA.htm • Youth PQA Plus Website • http://www.pork.org/Certification/21/youthPqaPlus.aspx • Iowa Beef Quality Assurance Website • http://www.iabeef.org/Content/bqa.aspx • 4-H Livestock Projects Website • http://www.extension.iastate.edu/4h/projects/livestock/

  6. Survey of Americans: • 9 out of 10 • In favor of additional food safety measures • COOL implementation • 64%believe imported foods are often or sometimes unsafe • 58%worry about bacterial contamination of the food supply Pew-commissioned poll – Hart Research and Public Opinion

  7. Who is responsible for safe food? • Producers • Handlers • Processors • Food Suppliers • Consumers

  8. Who Cares About FSQA? • 17 million pounds of meat produced by Iowa 4-H’ers each year • Reputation of the 4-H program • 4-H’ers need to be responsible to the consumer and the food industry. • Industry requirements must be met and maintained. • Many 4-H’ers are further away from traditional food animal production.

  9. 4-Her’s Responsibility • Understand and follow the seven Good Production Practices (GPP’s) • Produce safe food products for consumers

  10. Iowa 4-H Food Safety and Quality Assurance Program Good Production Practices Healthy Animals Safe Food

  11. Partners in Safe Food

  12. Regulatory Partners • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) • regulates medicated animal feeds and most animal health products • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) • sets tolerance levels for pesticides used in food production • Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) • inspects all livestock at federally inspected packing plants and examines plant sanitation

  13. HAACP • A system used in meat packing plants to prevent food safety problems • Regulated by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) • Hazard • Analysis and • Critical • Control • Points

  14. HAACP Hazards can be identified as: • Microbial contamination • Bacteria, virus, protozoa • Chemical Hazards • Antimicrobial and chemical tissue residues • Physical Hazards • Broken needles or metal

  15. HACCP • Identify the risks • Identify potential hazards (risks) • Identify critical control points • Plan the prevention • Set a critical limit • Monitor the process • Plan corrective action • Monitor the progress • Keep accurate records • Review the process regularly

  16. 4-H’ers Responsibilities • Understand and follow the seven Good Production Practices • Produce safe food products for consumers

  17. Good Production Practices • Keep accurate records • Veterinary relationship & drug usage • Healthy production practices • Proper care and handling • Feed and Feed Additives • Biosecurity and Animal Welfare • Exhibit strong character traits (ethics)

  18. Good Production PracticesIn Depth • GPP 3 – Healthy Production Practices • GPP 4 – Proper Care and Handling • GPP 7 – Ethics

  19. #3. Healthy Production Practices • Properly story, label and account for all drugs and medications • Properly administer the medications • Educate all family members to assist with giving medications • Use drug testing when appropriate

  20. Properly store, label and account for drugs/medications Label of a Medication • Name of Drug • Quantity of Contents • Name of Distributor • Active Ingredient • Dosage • Cautions and Warnings • Withdrawal Time • Storage • Lot number • Expiration date

  21. Label Worksheet • Worksheet – “Reading Medication Labels” based on the drug label of “SuperCill” • Refer to “FSQA Activity Guide” starting on page 34

  22. Properly Administer Medications • Routes of administration • Injection • Oral • Water • Feed • Mouth directly • Topical

  23. Properly Administer Medications Routes of injection • Intramuscular (IM) • Subcutaneous (SQ) • Intraperitoneal (IP) • Intravenous (IV) • Intranasal (IN) • Intramammary

  24. Injections • Intramuscular (IM): means to inject into the muscle • Causes damage to muscle tissue

  25. Injections • Subcutanueous (SQ): means to inject under the loose skin area • Preferred because it causes least damage

  26. Injections • Intraperitoneal:inject into the abdominal cavity • Typically done by Vets

  27. Injections • Intravenous (IV): inject directly into the vein or bloodstream • Fastest acting • Done by Vets

  28. Injections • Intranasel: inject into the nasal passages

  29. Injections • Intramammary: means to inject into the teat canal (dairy cattle)

  30. Injections

  31. Injection Lesions

  32. Needle size – plastic hub • Select needle size by – • Length of needle • Bore of needle (inside diameter) • Species to be injected • Size of animal

  33. Recommended needle sizes and lengths: Intramuscular (IM) Injection GaugeLength Baby Pigs 18 or 20 5/8" or 1/2" Nursery 16 or 18 3/4" or 5/8" Finisher 16 1" Breeding Stock 14, 15, or 16 1 or 1 1/2“ (Hogs and Cattle) Calves, <300 lbs 18 1" to 1 1/2" Calves, 300-700 lbs 16 – 18 1" to 1 1/2" Calves, >700 lbs 16 1" to 1 1/2“ Rabbit 22 -25 ½” to ¾” Sheep and Goats 16 or 18 ¾ “ to 1”

  34. Recommended needle sizes and lengths: Subcutaneous Injection GaugeLength Nursery 16 or 18 1/2" Finisher 16 3/4“ Breeding Stock 14 or 16 1“ (Hogs and Cattle) Calves, <300 lbs 18 - 20 1/2" to 3/4" Calves, 300-700 lbs 16 – 18 1/2" to 3/4" Calves, >700 lbs 16 - 18 1/2" to 3/4“ Sheep and Goats 16 – 18 ½” to ¾” Rabbit 22 -25 ½” or less

  35. Remember: • Use proper size (see chart) • Needles should not be defective. • Can damage muscle tissue • Can break off in the muscle • Can cause infections • Inspect needles for dirt • Inspect for dullness • Inspect for bending • Do not straighten bent needles • Properly restraining animals decreases chances of problems • Dispose of needles properly

  36. What are you going to do if you break off a needle into an animal ? • Stop injections • Attempt to remove the needle • Temporarily identify the animal - How ? • Permanently identify the animal – How ? • If selling the animal to market, tell the buyer for separation from market group for special processing. REMEMBER – ONE BROKEN NEEDLE IS TOO MANY !

  37. Selecting Needles • Worksheet Exercise, p. 39 of FSQA Activity Guide

  38. Administering Medications • Oral: By mouth, by feed or water

  39. Administering Medications • Topical: Sprayed, poured or rubbed on the skin. Used with treatment for external parasites or injuries.

  40. All Are On The Same Page • Educate all family members to assist • You are responsible for your animals!

  41. #4. Proper Care & Handling

  42. Proper Care and Handling • Provide clean facilities • Provide a balanced ration • Provide plenty of clean fresh water daily • Provide health care, including immunizations and treatments when necessary • Work with a veterinarian to develop a health care plan and monitoring process • Handle animals to reduce stress, and ensure safety • Observe animals daily and treat if needed

  43. GPP 4: Care and Handling What if your animals are Too Cold? • More bedding • Heaters • More animals • Prevent drafts • Shelter

  44. GPP 4: Care and Handling What if your animals are Too Hot? • Shade • Fans or ventilation • Sprinkle water • Remove hair or shear

  45. GPP 4: Care and Handling Animals lose heat in 4 ways… • Evaporative • Conductive • Radiant • Convective

  46. Water, Water, Water • The most important nutrient that you can give to your animal • Water constitutes ~ 60 -70 % of an animal’s live weight • An animal can live ~ 45 – 60 days without food but only ~ 3 – 7 days without water • High moisture feeds can supply some of the water requirement

  47. Function of Water • Aid in temperature regulation of the animal • Transport nutrients, hormones, and other chemicals within the body • Lubricates joints • Aids in eliminating waste products of digestion and metabolism • Helps regulate blood pressure • Component of salvia and milk

  48. Air Temperature and Humidity Feed Ingredients Water Quality Animal’s Health Water Availability Type of Waterer Temperature of Water Reproduction and Lactation Kind and size of the animal Level of activity Amount of salt activates the thirst mechanism Factors that Affect the Water Consumption of an Animal

  49. Water Requirements for your Animal ? • Provide ad lib or hand water generously • Fresh and clean • Water temperature in the range of 40 to 70 degrees if possible • Remember - Animals can’t drink ICE !

  50. Water Requirements Activity“How Much Water?” • See Handout Sheet: FSQA Activity Guide p. 56-57