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  1. TEEN MOMS By: Teena Marshall, Chad Duke, Troy Gasner, Caroline Smith, Ashley Swinarski, and Linda Esther

  2. BACKGROUND • Since 2007, rates of teen pregnancy are on the decline… • In 2009 Teen birth rates for 15-19 years old decreased overall 6% among all races and ethnic backgrounds… • White non-Hispanic • Black non-Hispanic • American Indian/Alaskan Native • American Pacific/Hispanic Teen Birth Rates Declined Again in 2009. (2011). Retrieved February 17, 2011, from

  3. BACKGROUND (cont.) • Even though birth rates are down and on the decline general factors of teen pregnancy tend to be associated with: • Being sexually active • Lack of access to or poor use of contraception • Living in poverty • Having parents with low levels of education • Poor performance in school • Growing up in a single-parent family. Teen Birth Rates Declined Again in 2009. (2011). Retrieved February 17, 2011, from

  4. SEXUAL ACTIVITY • The average age of first intercourse among girls and boys… • Predictors of sexual intercourse among teens: • Early onset of pubertal development • History of sexual abuse • Poverty • Lack of attentive and nurturing parents • Cultural and family patterns or early sexual experience • Lack of school or career goals • Substance abuse • Poor school performance or dropping out of school Klein, J. (2005). Adolescent pregnancy: Current trends and issues. Pediatrics. Vol. 116 No. 1. Pg. 281-286.

  5. TRENDS IN ADOLESCENTS CHILDBEARING • “Approximately 51% of adolescent pregnancies end in live births, 35% end in induced abortion, and 14% in miscarriage or stillbirth.” • Further studies show and indicate that once a teenager has had 1 infant, she increases her risk of having another. (approx. 25% of adolescent births are not first births) Klein, J. (2005). Adolescent pregnancy: Current trends and issues. Pediatrics. Vol. 116 No. 1. Pg. 281-286.

  6. TRENDS IN ADOLESCENT CHILDBEARING • Are teen pregnancies unintended or intended? Klein, J. (2005). Adolescent pregnancy: Current trends and issues. Pediatrics. Vol. 116 No. 1. Pg. 281-286.

  7. MEDICAL RISKS OF ADOLESCENT PREGNANCY • Teenagers younger than 17 years of age have a higher incidence and include the following factors of biological, medical, and social… • Low birth weight (more than double the rate of adults) • Neonatal death rate (within 28 days of birth) is almost 3 times higher • Poor maternal weight gain • Premature births • Poor nutritional status • Low prepregnancy weight, height, and parity • Poor birth outcomes • Smoking • Drug use • Inadequate prenatal care Klein, J. (2005). Adolescent pregnancy: Current trends and issues. Pediatrics. Vol. 116 No. 1. Pg. 281-286.

  8. Values, Beliefs and Customary Practices of Teenage Mothers • Teenage mothers and fathers believe that having a baby will • Develop closer bonds between each other in terms of a more serious and romantic relationship • Will prevent them from experiencing loneliness • (Minnick & Shandler, 2011)

  9. Values, Beliefs and Customary Practices of Teenage Mothers • According to the three sources of information, the book, articles and interview • Teenage mothers expressed that they never worried about becoming pregnant • It was also not seen as a negative life event in their culture • It was reported that family’s and friends supported each individual (Minnick & Shandler, 2011) Personal Communication: Living Grace House Owens (2010)

  10. Values, Beliefs and Customary Practices of Society • Society feels differently about teenage pregnancy • Teenagers who have children at a young age are a disgrace to society • Teenagers are too young to be mothers or take on the responsibilities to raise children correctly • Teenager mothers become a burden to society (Luscombe, 2010)

  11. Social Justice issues • Poverty and income • Overall child well-being • Health issues • Education • Out of wedlock births linked to teen-pregnancy (

  12. Disparities in Rates of Unintended Pregnancy • Unmarried (particularly cohabiting) women • Low-income women • Women who had not completed high school • Minority women • Girls age 15-19 • Teen pregnancy rate among Hispanic and black teen girls age 15-19 was more than two and a half times higher than the teen pregnancy rate among non-Hispanic white teen (Meana& Thaler, 2004)

  13. Babies of teen-age moms • Poor • Drop out of high school • Lower grade-point averages • Lower college aspirations • Poorer school attendance records • As adults, they also have higher rates of divorce • The teen pregnancy rate varies greatly by state, ranging • 33 per 1,000 teen girls in New Hampshire • 93 per 1,000 teen girls in New Mexico (,(Meana, & Thaler, 2004)

  14. When is Contraception used?

  15. Teen Mothers • Teenagers who do not use a method of birth control at first intercourse • Twice as likely to become teen mothers (

  16. Health Disparities • Insurance options at certain religiously-affiliated educational institutions will not cover contraceptive information or services • Youths are concerned with privacy and disclosure to their parents • Co-pays are often too high • Young adults face being uninsured during transitional periods, such as moving between locations or between jobs

  17. Where are the women?

  18. AOTA emerging practice areas Occupational Therapy • Services to address the psychological needs of youth and children • Health and wellness consulting

  19. Occupational therapy Prior successful programs • Clear message • Last a sufficient length of time (i.e. more than a few weeks). • Select leaders who believe in the program and provide them with adequate training • Actively engage participants and have them personalize the information • Address peer pressure • Teach communication skills • Reflect the age • Reflect the culture (Kaye, Suellentrop, & Sloup, 2009)

  20. Book/Article REVIEW Life After Birth A Memoir of Survival and Success as a TEENAGE MOTHER by Summer Owens

  21. SYNTHESIS • Get the Facts • Why does this matter? • What can You do?

  22. REFERENCES • Cowley, C., Farley, T. (2001). Adolescent girls’ attitudes toward pregnancy. Journal of Family Practice. July 2001. • Hamilton, B.E., Martin, J.A. & Ventura, S.J. (2010). Births: Preliminary data for 2010. National Vital Statistics Reports, 59(3). • Kaye, K., Suellentrop, K., and Sloup, C. (2009). The Fog Zone: How Misperceptions, Magical Thinking, and Ambivalence Put Young Adults at Risk for Unplanned Pregnancy. Washington, DC: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. • Klein, J. (2005). Adolescent pregnancy: Current trends and issues. Pediatrics. Vol. 116 No. 1. Pg. 281-286. • Macleod, C., & Tracey, T. (2010). A decade later: follow-up review of South African research on the consequences of and contributory factors in teen-aged pregnancy. South African Journal of Psychology, 40(1), 18-31. • Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Sutton, P.D., Ventura, S.J., Menacker, F., Kirmeyer, S., Mathews, T.J. (2009). Births: Final data for 2006. Centers for Disease Control: Division of Vital Statistic, 57(7), 102. Retrieved From • Meana, M., & Thaler, L. (2004). Teen sexuality and pregnancy in Nevada (Master's thesis). 5 November. Retrieved February 13, 2012. • Minnick, D.J., & Shandler, L. (2011). Changing adolescent perceptions on teenage pregnancy. Oxford Journals: Practice Highlights, 33(4), 241-248. Retrieved From • National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. ( 2002). Not just a another single issue: Teen pregnancy prevention’s link to other critical social issues. Washington, DC: Author. • Owens, S. (2010). Life after birth: A memoir of survival and success as a teenage mother. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse. • Reinberg, S. (2012, January19).More than half of teens who gave birth weren’t using contraception: CDC. Health Day. Retrieved From • Teen Birth Rates Declined Again in 2009. (2011). Retrieved February 17, 2011, from • Tracy L. Glass, T. L., Tucker, K., Stewart, R., Baker, T. E., Kauffm, R. P. (2010). Infant feeding and contraceptive practices among adolescents with a high teen pregnancy rate: A 3-year retrospective study. Journal of Woman’s Health, 19, 9 1659-1653.

  23. GROUP ACTIVITY • Please get into your presentation groups…