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Southwest Asia The Middle East

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  1. Southwest Asia The Middle East FSMS 7th Grade Social Studies; Unit 2 Change (U. S. Involvement) September 20th – 22nd; Days 20 - 21 Georgia Standard SS7H2(d)

  2. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings Standard SS7H2 The student will analyze continuity and change in Southwest Asia (Middle East) leading to the 21st century. (d) Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict, invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.

  3. FIRST FIVE AGENDA: Progress Reports will go home on Friday; 9/23/11. History of SWA Quiz is re-scheduled for Wednesday; September 28th. Study Guides will be distributed tomorrow 9/22/11. E.Q. Wednesday; 9/21/11:What is the United States ongoing interest in maintaining stability in Southwest Asia? Standard: The U.S. military presence in SWA including the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan. TODAY WE WILL • Quiz Review • Start the history of the Gulf Wars in Iraq & the war in Afghanistan.

  4. FIRST FIVE AGENDA: Progress Reports will go home tomorrow. Study Guides for next Wednesday’s Quiz on SWA History will be distributed today. E.Q. Thursday; 9/22/11:What are the two goals that the terrorist group al-Qaeda is trying to achieve? Standard: The U.S. military presence in SWA including the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan. TODAY WE WILL • Finish the history of the Gulf Wars in Iraq & the war in Afghanistan.

  5. FIRST FIVE AGENDA: Progress Reports will go home today. Have parents sign & return on Monday. Make file cards with your Study Guides for next Wednesday’s (multiple choice) Quiz on SWA History. E.Q. Friday; 9/23/11: What was the reason given by President Bush for the 2nd Iraq War? Standard: The U.S. military presence in SWA including the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan. TODAY WE WILL • Finish the history of the Gulf Wars in Iraq & the war in Afghanistan.

  6. FIRST FIVE AGENDA: Turn in signed Progress Reports today. Make file cards with your Study Guides for Wednesday’s (multiple choice) Quiz on SWA History. Turn-in E.Q.’s for last week. E.Q. Monday; 9/26/11: What is the connection between Literacy Rate and Gross Domestic Product (GDP)? Standard: The U.S. military presence in SWA including the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan. TODAY WE WILL • Finish the history of the two wars in Iraq & the War on Terror in Afghanistan. • Introduce Literacy Rate and GDP

  7. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest The United States has had significant political and economic interests in Southwest Asia for over 200 years. Vast supplies of oil are found in this area, oil that is critical to United States energy needs. Since the end of World War I, the United States has played an important role in diplomacy following the break-up of the Ottoman Empire.

  8. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest The U.S. support for the creation of the state of Israel in 1948 also focused attention on this part of the world.

  9. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. 1991 Iraq War In August 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait in an effort to control Kuwait’s large oil reserves. The leader of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, claimed that Kuwait was taking more than they were allowed from shared oil fields. He also claimed that when the Ottoman Empire was broken-up at the end of World War I, the area that became Kuwait should have been part of Iraq.

  10. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. 1991 Iraq War cont. The creation of the country of Iraq in 1920 meant that Iraq no longer had any coastline on the Persian Gulf. The United States was concerned about the invasion of Kuwait because the United States gets a large portion of its imported oil from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.

  11. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. 1991 Iraq War cont. Kuwait belonged to the United Nations, a world organization that will come to the aid of a member nation that is attacked without cause by another country. The United Nations voted to raise a military force to liberate Kuwait from the Iraqi invasion.

  12. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. 1991 Iraq War cont. Because of the threat to the oil supply, the United States sent troops to be part of this United Nations military force to drive Iraq out of Kuwaiti territory. This effort was known as the Persian Gulf War, or Operation Desert Storm.

  13. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. 1991 Iraq War cont. Thirty-nine countries joined in and within three months, by February 1991, the Iraqi government accepted a truce and agreed to withdraw from Kuwait.

  14. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. The War on Terror The terrorist group, al-Qaeda, carried out the 9/11 attacks on New York. Osama bin Laden leads al-Qaeda and was the mastermind behind the attacks. Al-Qaeda began as a resistance movement against Russia’s invasion of Afghanistan during the late 1970’s and early 80’s.

  15. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. The War on Terror cont. However, once the Russians withdrew, the group turned its focus to advancing a radical form of Islam. Al-Qaeda’s interpretation of Islam calls for expelling foreigners from the holy lands. It also seeks to overthrow corrupt countries in Southwest Asia.

  16. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. The War on Terror cont. To accomplish these goals, al-Qaeda also calls for the destruction of any state it feels supports these corrupt countries. Among the nations it hopes to destroy are Israel and the United States, plus other western European nations.

  17. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. The War on Terror cont. As a response to 9/11, President Bush declared a U.S. War on Terror. Bush stated that the United States would go after foreign terrorists rather than waiting for them to attack again.

  18. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. Terrorism in the Middle East Because SWA is filled with so much religious and political history, people there are very passionate about their beliefs. Sometimes people can take these beliefs to harmful extremes.

  19. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. Terrorism in the Middle East Terrorist groups are extremist people who believe in something so much, they are willing to use violence to achieve their goal. Terrorism is a large problem in Southwest Asia.

  20. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. Terrorism in the Middle East Here are some of the most dangerous terrorist groups. • Al Qaeda (Afghanistan) • Al-Jihad (Egypt) • Abu Nidal Organization (Iraq) • Kach and Kahane Chai (Israel) • Hezbollah (Lebanon)

  21. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. Terrorism in the Middle East Al Qaeda: Its goals are to create Islamic governments all over the world and to get rid of western influences in Muslim countries. Al-Jihad: Its goal is to overthrow the Egyptian government and replace it with an Islamic state.

  22. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. Terrorism in the Middle East Abu Nidal Organization: Its goal is to create a Palestinian state in place of Israel. Kach and Kahane Chai: Its goal is to restore the Israelite state as described in the Bible. Hezbollah: Its goal is to gain power in Lebanon to oppose Israel & Middle East peace agreements.

  23. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. Afghanistan War Intelligence sources identified an organization known as Al-Qaeda, or the Force, as the group of terrorists that planned and carried out the attack on the Twin Towers on 9/11. Its leader was a man who was born in Saudi Arabia named Osama bin-Laden. His family was very wealthy and he used his money to finance this organization.

  24. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. Afghanistan War cont. One of the aims of Al-Qaeda is to bring about an end to western influence in the Middle East. Intelligence sources in the United States government believed that the radical Muslim government of Afghanistan, the Taliban, allowed Al-Qaeda to hide in the mountains of their country.

  25. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. Afghanistan War cont. The United States launched a series of attacks on these mountain hideouts in October 2001 in an attempt to capture bin-Laden and destroy his organization. United States troops were also sent in and the government of the Taliban collapsed.

  26. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. Afghanistan War cont. Since 2001, the United States military have continued fighting in Afghanistan in an attempt to find bin-Laden and destroy his organization. The United States is also working to help the people of Afghanistan reorganize their government.

  27. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. 2nd Iraq War In 2003, the United States launched an invasion of Iraq, after claiming that the Iraqi government led by Saddam Hussein, was developing nuclear weapons (weapons of mass destruction or WMD) and offering aid to groups like Al-Qaeda. The United States called this military action Operation Iraqi Freedom.

  28. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. 2nd Iraq War The government of Saddam Hussein collapsed quickly because many of the Iraqis also felt he was a cruel leader. However, problems followed as the United States did not have a plan ready to help reorganize and rebuild the country once the old government was gone.

  29. The Middle EastHistorical Understandings U.S Presence and Interest cont. Iraq War cont. American forces have remained in Iraq ever since, trying to stop the fighting between different religious (Sunni and Shia) and ethnic groups (Arabs and Kurds) who are competing with each other for power as they try to organize a new government.