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Organization of Knowledge (LIS 703)

Organization of Knowledge (LIS 703)

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Organization of Knowledge (LIS 703)

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  1. Organization of Knowledge(LIS 703) Taverekere (Kanti) Srikantaiah Director and Professor Center For Knowledge Management Dominican University River Forest, IL 60305 Email: srikant@dom.edu Revised 1/22/08

  2. Information Management is: • Identifying information needs • Locating information sources • Selecting information sources • Organizing information • Disseminating information T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  3. S.R. Ranganathan’s Five Laws • Books are for use • Every reader his book • Every book its reader • Save the time of the reader • A library is a growing organization (From Jesse H. Shera. Libraries and the Organization of Information. Hamdon, CT: Archon Books, 1965) T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  4. Information Context Users Sources/Tools Contents T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  5. Information Context • Information systems have collections and policies. Their effectiveness is based on: • Reliability • Efficiency • Security • Quality • Etc. • Response time • Accuracy • Through put • Relevancy • Economy T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  6. Information • Categories of Information • Are they external or internal? • What do contents reflect? • What are the available formats? • Are there any specific terms and conditions to access? • How are the systems regarding speed, accuracy, consistency, and accountability? • What about costs? T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  7. Standards • Internal and External Standards • Are there any standards? • Are those standards internal, external, or both? • Do they comply with the stated standards? • Who (or unit) has the responsibility in implementation, monitoring and evaluation of standards? T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  8. Defining Information Needs • Users of Information • Do they belong to different groups? • Who are they? • What are their information needs? • How would information help? T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  9. Bibliographical Record • Serves users and also information providers • Data elements relevant to a document • Controlled vocabulary • House-keeping aspects T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  10. Level of Description (1.0D) • “Base the choice of a level of description on the purpose of the catalogue or catalogues for which the entry is constructed” • First Level of Description (1.0D1) • Second Level of Description (1.0D2) • Third Level of Description (1.0D3) T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  11. T. Kanti. Srikantaiah Source: Manheimer T. Kanti Srikantaiah

  12. T. Kanti. Srikantaiah Source: Manheimer T. Kanti Srikantaiah

  13. T. Kanti. Srikantaiah Source: Manheimer T. Kanti Srikantaiah

  14. Chief Source of Information (CSOI) • CSOI • Title Page • Item; Container/Case • Manuscript/Other Sources • List Title Page, Cover, Caption, Colophon, Other Sources • Type of Material • Atlases • Other Cartographic Items • Manuscript • Published Music T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  15. Chief Source of Information (CSOI) • Type of Material • Sound Recordings • Disc • Tape (Reel to Reel) • Tape Cassette • Tape Cartridge • Roll • Sound Recording on Film • CSOI • Disc and Label • Reel and Label • Cassette and Label • Cartridge and Label • Label • Container and Label T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  16. Chief Source of Information (CSOI) • CSOI • Film, Cartridge, Container and Label, Other Sources • Items, Labels, Containers • Title Screen, Other Internal Sources (Menus/Programs) • Type of Material • Motion Pictures and Video recordings • Graphic Materials • Computer Files • Three-Dimensional T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  17. Development of Catalog Codes • Ad-hoc rules all over • Anthony Panizzi -BM (91 rules) 1841 • Charles Cutter (Rules for Dictionary Catalog) 1876 • Prussian Instructions (Basis for German Union Catalog) 1898 • Anglo-American Code (AA Code) 1908 • 1949 rules for descriptive cataloging in LC • ALA Code 1949 • Lubetzky’s Revisions 1949-1967 T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  18. Bibliographic Record • 1961 Paris principles • 1966 international meeting of cataloging experts of IFLA and initiation of ISBD • 1977 ISBD’s general eight specific areas: each area divided into a number of elements later fully expanded to cover M, A, MRF, NBM, PM, and S T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  19. Development of Catalog Codes • AACR1 1967 • AACR2 1978 • AACR2R 1988 • with Amendments 2002+ • The Future ???? T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  20. AACR2R • General Rules for Description Chapter 1 • Books, Pamphlets, and Printed Sheets Chapter 2 • Cartographic Materials Chapter 3 • Manuscripts Chapter 4 • Published Music Chapter 5 • Sound Recordings Chapter 6 T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  21. AACR2R • Motion Pictures and Video recordings Chapter 7 • Graphic Materials Chapter 8 • Electronic Resources Chapter 9 • Three-Dimensional Artifacts and Realia Chapter 10 • Microforms Chapter 11 • Continuing Resources Chapter 12 • Analysis Chapter 13 T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  22. Rules for Descriptive Cataloging Appendix A: Capitalization (563-599) Appendix B: Abbreviations (600-610) Appendix C: Numerals (611-614) Appendix D: Glossary (615-624) Appendix E: Initial Articles T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  23. Rules for Descriptive Cataloging (Print Materials) REFER: • Anglo American Cataloguing Rules. 2nd ed., revised 1988, 2002. • Chapter 1: General Rules for Description • Chapter 2: Books, Pamphlets, and Printed Sheets T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  24. The Catalog Parts of the catalogs • Public catalog • Shelf list • Authority file T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  25. T. Kanti. Srikantaiah Source: Manheimer T. Kanti Srikantaiah

  26. T. Kanti. Srikantaiah Source: Manheimer T. Kanti Srikantaiah

  27. Bibliographic Record • Call number • Main entry • Title proper : other title information • Statement of responsibility; subsequent statements of responsibility. • Edition statement/statement of responsibility relating to the edition T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  28. Bibliographic Record • Imprint Place: publisher, date (Place: printer) • Physical description, Number of pages, Number of plates: illustration statement; size + accompanying material. • Series; number • Notes • Standard Number (ISBN) • Subject heading • Added entry T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  29. Authority Control • Interchangeable with vocabulary control • Consistency in description of any element • Enhances information retrieval • Shows relationships • Persons • Titles • Subjects T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  30. Authority Control • Maintain consistency • Enhance information retrieval • Show relationships: persons, titles, and subjects T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  31. MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging) • 1960's - publisher, printers, editors started experimenting with computers to produce books • 1964 - The recording of library of congress bibliographical data in machine readable form • 1965 - LC/CLR/ARL sponsored a conference to determine requirements for a machine readable record T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  32. MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging) • 1966(Nov) to 1968(Jun) - LC distributed 50,000 records for English language monographs on magnetic tape to 16 participating libraries • 1968 - The MARC pilot project. Final report on a project sponsored by the Council on Library Resources, Inc (includes description of work and reports of the participating libraries) T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  33. MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging) 1969 - Implementation of MARC distribution service to participating libraries and institutions T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  34. MARC • Each USMARC has three elements: • Record Structure • Content Designation • Data Content of the Record T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  35. MARC: Record Structure • Implementation of ANSI Z39.2 • Bibliographic Information Interchange on magnetic tape (adopted in 1971) • ISO 2709 (1981 & Revisions) • Documentation format for Bibliographic Information Interchange on magnetic tape (1973) (international equivalent of ANSI) T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  36. MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging) • MARC I became MARC II • MARC was later called LCMARC • LCMARC eventually became USMARC • MARC 21 (current) T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  37. LC Responsibilities (MARC and standardization are complimentary activities) • Make necessary changes to established formats • Design new formats collaborating with the library community • Compile and distribute MARC documentation • Maintain liaison with the ALA (MARBI) • Represent the U.S. library community in international MARC activities T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  38. MARC Display (sample tags) 008 Coded control information 010 LC Control Number 020 ISBN 040 Cataloging Source 043 Geographic Area Code 050 LC Call Number 082 Dewey Call Number 090 Local Call Numbers 100 Main Entry--Personal Name T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  39. MARC Display (sample tags) 110 Main Entry--Corporate Name 111 Main Entry--Meeting Name 130 Main Entry--Uniform Title 245 Title Statement 250 Edition Statement 260 Imprint 300 Physical Description 400 Series Statement/Added Entry--Personal Name 410 Series Statement/Added Entry--Corporate Name T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  40. MARC Display (sample tags) 440 Series Statement/Added Entry--Title 500 General Note 504 Bibliography Note 505 Contents Note 600 Subject Added Entry--Personal Name 610 Subject Added Entry--Corporate Name 611 Subject Added Entry--Meeting Name 650 Subject Added Entry--Topical Term 651 Subject Added Entry--Geographic Name T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  41. MARC Display (sample tags) 700 Added Entry--Personal Name 710 Added Entry--Corporate Name 730 Added Entry--Uniform Title 740 Added Entry--Variant Title 800 Series Added Entry--Personal Name 810 Series Added Entry--Corporate Name 811 Series Added Entry--Meeting Name T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  42. The Catalog • Identification of information in a traditional bibliographic record • Call numbers • Main entry • Bibliographic description (areas and elements) • Tracing • LC control number/others T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  43. The Catalog • What is a catalog? • Functions of the catalog • Objectives of the catalog • Bibliographic record formats and elements (identification and terminology) T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  44. The Catalog Access points: headings and entries • Main entry: personal name, corporate name, title • Added entries: personal name, corporate name, title, series, subject • Non-traditional access points: classification, standard numbers, other elements • The unit record and the complete card set T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  45. The Catalog Identification of information in a MARC bibliographic record • All of above+ • Fixed-length data fields (fixed fields) • Variable-length data fields (variable fields) and subfields • Record directory and data field tags • Data field indicators T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  46. Card Cataloging Rules Adequate for Electronic Processing? • Rules should serve both manual and on-line • AAACR2 rules applicable to computer processing? • Bibliographical syntax and complexity T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  47. Computerized Record Formats • Fixed length field • # of characters fixed • No computer instruction on ending of field • Economical on data storage • Easy to code T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  48. Computerized Record Formats • Variable length field • Length varies within fields and subfields • Computerized records operated by separators (delimiters) • Content designators • Fields and subfields • Repeatable fields and subfields • Indicators • Directory • Label (leader) T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  49. OCLC, MARC, SGML and HTML • Traditional mark up deal with physical format • Electronic systems have built in procedure for formatting • When system software (sometimes hardware) changes data conversion is necessary (time-consuming and costly) T. Kanti. Srikantaiah

  50. OCLC, MARC, SGML and HTML • In descriptive (text) mark up contents of a document is structured not the physical format • Document contents (chapter, paragraph, footnote, bibliography) are categorized using codes for effective retrieval to meet different needs T. Kanti. Srikantaiah