India Gains Independence Chapter 34 Section 1
So… now what? Suppose you emerge as the first leader of a newly independent nation- a former colony of the British Empire. • What are the first steps you would take to lead your nation to peace and prosperity? • What do you think would be your greatest challenges?
Why Nations Earned Independence • Cost and commitments of holding a colony • Questioning the practice of holding colonies • The colonized people began to press for their freedoms and independence.
1920’s • Mohandas Gandhi- first nonviolent campaign for independence • Civil Disobedience: non- cooperation, boycotts, strikes, demonstrations, the Salt March.
1940- Muslim League • There were two parties: Muslim League and Congress (Hindu) • Muhammad Ali Jinnah- encouraged all Muslims to resign from Congress party. • Major Concern= That the congress party would mainly protect Hindu interests. • The only thing in common was slavery to the British.
1947- Independence! What’s up with this? • The British turned over rule to India and Pakistan • Major issue: who would have the power AND how to divide the people- Muslims & Hindus • Partitian- India divided into three regions.
1947- Violence • Assassinated trying to urge tolerance of Muslim refugees • In all 1 million died in the summer of 1947 while moving to the partitioned areas.
Conflict in Kashmir Yep, that’s us! • Located in North Eastern India • Ruler was Hindu, but most of the people were Muslim • Conflict between India and Pakistan for control 1948-1949 • UN cease fire- 1/3 under Pakistan’s control, the rest under India’s
Nehru- the First Prime Minister • Modernization of the newly independent India- ruled for 17 years • Industrialization • Social reforms • Elevate status of lower castes • Improved women’s rights
Problems following Nehru’s death • Bangladesh- 1971- became a new nation after a civil war between East and West Pakistan broke out. • 1 million + died in the war • India supported Bangladesh (East Pakistan)
Indira Gandhi • Prime Minister following Nehru’s death 1966-1975 then from 1980 – 1984. • Sikh extremists wanted independence. • India’s army attacked their temple and she was assassinated in retaliation
1987- Sri Lanka • Gained independence from Britain in1948 • Ethnic conflicts between the Tamil (Hindus) and Buddhists • The civil war still continues today even after India has tried to help
Israel and the Middle East Formation of Israel Arab-Israeli Conflicts
Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and EffectThe Balfour Declaration Cause- Jewish Diaspora (2nd century) Britain gained control of Palestine after WWII- Jews began moving to the region there was much sympathy for the Jews- the UN recommended partitioning Palestine Effect- the declaration supported a Jewish state, but the creation failed and hostility between Jews and Palestinians grew. * Outbreak of a full-scale Arab-Israeli War
Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and EffectFormation of an Independent Israel • Cause- After WWII the UN addressed the matter- the UN decided to partition Palestine. • Effect- Islamic countries voted against it- Israel got a hostile welcome from their neighbors.
Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and Effect1956 Arab-Israeli War (2 Conflicts) War #1 Cause- Six Arab states invaded Israel Effect- Israel won and the state of Palestine did not come to being. War #2 Cause Egypt was upset because the British and US withdrew financial support for the Aswan Dam and Seized the Suez Canal Effect- British and French air support helped Israel win, Israel withdrew from Egypt
Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and Effect1967 Six Day War • Cause- Arab states made hostile statements, Israel believed they would attack after they closed of Israel’s access to the Red Sea • Effects- Israel lost 8,000 troops- Arabs lost over 15,000- Israel expanded its border including Jerusalem, West Bank, Golan Heights and Sinai Peninsula.
Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and Effect1973 Yom Kippur War Cause- Joint Arab forces (led by Egypt) attacked Israel and caught them off guard and regained much of their territory. Yom Kippur is the holiest Jewish holiday Effects- Israel's counter attack, regained the territory and a truce was agreed to.
Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and EffectCamp David Accords- Sadat and Begin- • Cause- Egypt (Sadat)extended an offer of peace and recognition to Israel • Effects- trip to D.C where agreement was signed- Egypt became the first Arab state to recognize Israel’s right to exist in exchange for the Sinai Peninsula- Ended 30 years of hostility! BUT, Sadat was assassinated!
Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and EffectDeclaration of Principles- Rabin and Arafat • Cause- Ongoing conflict over Israel’s occupied territories that led to peace talks. • Effects- allow Palestinians to have their own self rule in Gaza and West Bank- BUT a Jewish extremist assassinated the Jewish Prime Minister (Rabin) • This ignited even more conflict that continues today.
Golda Meir • Prime Minister 1969-1974 • Born in Kiev, Ukraine and lived in Milwaukee • Zionists- part of the movement to form Israel • Various government positions • One of the world’s first female prime ministers • Yom Kippur War
Terrorism (36.4) A New Warfare Impacts on Our Lives
Islam Remembers 9-11 http://www.jihadunspun.com/articles/09112002-911Tribute/Islam.Remembers.html (VIDEO) http://www.memritv.org/clip/en/2104.htm
Islamic Summit Resolution • Terrorism is an act carried out to achieve an inhuman and corrupt (mufsid) objective, and involving threat to security of any kind, and violation of rights acknowledged by religion and mankind. • does not apply to the following: a. acts of national resistance exercised against occupying forces, colonizers and usurpers; b. resistance of peoples against cliques imposed on them by the force of arms; c. rejection of dictatorships and other forms of despotism and efforts to undermine their institutions; d. resistance against racial discrimination and attacks on the latter's strongholds; e. retaliation against any aggression if there is no other alternative. Resolution 2 0/5-P (1.5) of the Fifth Islamic Summit
The US Stated Department’s Definition • Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant (includes both civilians and military personnel who are unarmed or off duty at the time) targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. • International terrorism= terrorism involving citizens or the territory of more than one country • The term "terrorist group" means any group practicing, or that has significant subgroups that practice, international terrorism
The Dictionary • Terrorist- [n] a radical who employs terror as a political weapon or [adj] characteristic of someone who employs terrorism (especially as a political weapon); -terrorist activity- • Freedom fighter- [n] a person who takes part in an armed rebellion against the constituted authority (especially in the hope of improving conditions)
Your Turn: • Work with your group to draft a clear, concise definition of terrorism…. • Be sure to discuss the information found on the definition sheet provided by the teacher. • You will be assigned one of eight organizations to investigate for acts of terrorism to determine if they were terrorists or freedom fighters
The Fall of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe Chapter 35 Sections 3 and 4 Workbook page- guided notes
The halt to Soviet Society • Society wasn’t growing due to policies that discouraged political discussion and disagreement- censored writers, restricted freedom of speech and worship.
The Beginning of Change • Mikhail Gorbachev instituted glasnost policy that encouraged the free flow of ideas- churches opened, released dissidents from prison, book publication by banned authors, some freedoms of the press
Inefficient and Unproductive Economy • Consumers protested standing in line, prices, and inferior products – effects of central planning • 1985 Peristroika (economic restructuring) to restructure the economy- allowed small private businesses and local managers control over farms and factories
Expense of the Arms Race • Ronald Regan- HUGE military expansion ($2 trillion in the US) • NO WAY the Soviets could keep up • 1987- Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty- banned nuclear missiles with ranges of 300 to 3,400 miles
Coup against Gorby • Democratization party- demands for more democracy • Hard-line Communists demanded his resignation- sent military to Moscow. • Boris Yeltsin (mayor) turned against the government and military troops did not follow their orders • Gorbachev returned to Moscow and continued with the reforms.
The End of the USSR • Due to the collapse of the coup the communist party collapsed • Estonia and Latvia declared independence- others followed. • Yeltsin- meeting with the republics to create the CIS
Economic Problems… AGAIN?! • 1992- Shock Therapy- abrupt shift to free market economics • Lowered trade barriers, removed priced controls and ended subsidies to state industries • Initial 800% inflation! Still struggling economically
Chechnya • Large population of Muslims- declared independence in 19991- • Yeltsin denied their right to secede, dent troops and destroyed the capital • Cease fire (Yeltsin reelected) fighting broke out again
The winds of change… Eastern Europe • Soviet reforms of the 80’s and the consequences led others in the bloc to shift away from communism. • Most began with political and social reforms
Poland 1980-1995 • Solidarity- union led by Lech Walesa- protested to be recognized. • The economy was bad… real bad! • Communism wasn’t working, so they voted in Walesa as president • His reforms didn’t work either.
Poland 1995 - Today • Poland elected a former communist to leadership. Alexander Kwasniewsk • He continued with free market economy and democratic reforms- • The economy is still not great, but Poland is now a full member of NATO
Hungarian Reforms • Inspired by changes in Poland • Small stock market, free enterprise, multi-party, free elections • Democratic reforms followed • Economic down-turn in the late 90s • Full member of NATO
German Reunification • East Germans were inspired by Hungary’s reforms • Many East Germans visited Hungary • East German Government shut the borders • Protests for free travel(later added free elections) broke out- communist leaders lost their power • Eventually led to the reunification of Germany
Escape Video Mr. Gorbechez… Tear Down This Wall! Call for Reunification Celebration of the Fall of the Berlin Wall
Czechoslovakia • Inspired by the reforms of their neighbors and the fall of Berlin Wall protesters demanded free elections • Government squashed the protest… making it worse • 11/25/1989 500,000 protesters demanded and end to communist rule… it happened
Czech Republic and Slovakia • Shock therapy reforms hurt the Slovaks more than the Czechs • Soon they began to drift apart- the people wanted two nations • 1993 it split into the two countries