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Spontaneity in Voltaic Cells. Relating E, ∆G, w ,Q’, K. E o red + E o ox = E o. Higher E o red means stronger oxidizer Higher E o ox means stronger reducer If E o is positive , then the reaction is spontaneous. ∆G - It’s fun.

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## Spontaneity in Voltaic Cells

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**Spontaneity in Voltaic Cells**Relating E, ∆G, w,Q’, K**Eored + Eoox = Eo**• Higher Eored means stronger oxidizer • Higher Eoox means stronger reducer • If Eo is positive , then the reaction is spontaneous.**∆G - It’s fun**• ∆G is the available free energy - or energy available for work • By convention, we identify work which is negative with work which is being done by the system on the surroundings. And negative free energy change is identified as defining a spontaneous process. ∆G = -w • Work in a voltaic cell comes from e- movement (Q’)- The movement is from charge attraction (E). • So… w = Q’E**Q’ = (9.648x104 ) (number of moles (n))**• Q’ = nF • ∆G = -w so ∆G = -Q’E and ∆G = -nF E • E is in volts, so Q’E is in (coulomb volts) which is equal to Joules (J) the unit for ∆G**Example**Zn + H+ → Zn2+ + H2 Half Reactions: Zn → Zn2+ + 2e- Eoox = 0.762v H+ + 2e- → H2 Eored = 0.000v Eo = 0.762v ∆G = -nF E = -2(9.648x104 )(0.762v) ∆G = -147000J = -147kJ**K means Equilibrium Konstant**• Equilibrium means the reaction will also go in reverse: A + B ↔ C + D • If the reaction goes in reverse that will change the voltage (E) and the free energy (∆G)**∆G = -RT lnK**R is a constant = 8.31 T is temperature in Kelvin (K) • If ∆G = -nF E then E = • So… E = lnK**If you have standard conditions (1atm, 25oC) then we know…**• So Eo lnK

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