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CE 380

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CE 380

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  1. CE 380 Environmental Science and Engineering

  2. Assignment Write on a piece of paper your name and your answer to the following question: What do environmental engineers do?

  3. Environmental Engineering(Section 1.1) In general: The application of scientific and engineering principles to minimize the adverse effects of human activity on the environment and to safeguard human health and welfare

  4. Assignment Write on the same piece of paper your answer to the following question: Why do you need to know this stuff?

  5. Air Noise Pollution Solid Waste Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Water Wastewater Course Organization Sustainability

  6. Sustainability Primary Chapter: 1 Supplemental Chapter: 17

  7. Sustainability

  8. Assignment – Due Fri. Answer the following questions. • What is sustainability? • How does it pertain to civil engineering? • What are the potential pros and cons of integrating sustainability into projects/policies?

  9. Water, Part 1 Primary Chapter: 10 Supplemental Chapters: 3, 9

  10. Section 10.1 Water Quantity & Sources

  11. Total Water Supply Fresh Water Supply Available Fresh Water Supply Salt Water Supply Water on Earth

  12. Potable Water Sources Deep Wells Springs Shallow Wells Intakes Fresh and Saline

  13. U.S. Water Use

  14. U.S. Water Withdrawalsin 2005

  15. Sections 9.1 – 9.2 Water Quality

  16. Exercise Water, water everywhere but which drop can you drink? • Would you drink this? • What about it makes it seem okay or not?

  17. Review: Laws and Regulations

  18. The Process Public concern and/or a recognition of link between cause and effect Law Regulations

  19. Federal Government

  20. Section 9.3 Drinking Water Legislation

  21. Activity - 1 Where can promulgated (final) federal laws and regulations be found? • Federal Register • Code of Federal Regulations • Washington Times

  22. Activity - 2 What is the primary law regulating drinking water treatment? • Safe Drinking Water Act • Clean Water Act • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  23. Activity - 3 What are the differences between primary and secondary standards? • Enforceability • Purpose • Size of plant covered

  24. No Reported Violations

  25. Section 10.2 Drinking Water treatment

  26. Drinking Water Treatment • Primary goal: Prevention of disease • Secondary goals: • Good taste, odor, and color • Low hardness • Meet irrigation and fire protection needs

  27. Processfor POTWs

  28. Intake Surge Tank Horizontal Centrifugal Pump Screw

  29. General Water Treatment Conventional Vs. Advanced

  30. Section 10.2.1 Softening

  31. Why? Why do we soften water?

  32. Why?

  33. What? What is hardness?

  34. How? How do we soften water?

  35. = ? ± Units How do we get to from mg/L of ions to mg/L as CaCO3?

  36. Example Find total hardness (in mg/L as CaCO3) of water containing: Ca2+ = 80 mg/L, Mg2+ = 30 mg/L, Pb2+ = 160 mg/L, Fe 3+ = 50 mg/L Na+ = 72 mg/L, K+ = 6 mg/L Cl- = 100 mg/L, SO42- = 201 mg/L, HCO3- = 165 mg/L pH = 7.5

  37. Units (Section 3.1.2) ppm vs. mg/L 1 ppm is equivalent to 1 minute in: a) 1 day b) 2 years c) 6 weeks

  38. Approximations and Sig Figs(Section 3.2) Consider: • Problem 3.26 (p. 108) • Problem 3.27 (p. 108) • Problem 3.29 (p. 108)

  39. Reminder Hints for Quantitative Problems • Write down the general equation. • Write down your units throughout! And use them to come up with your final units. • Be reasonable with sig figs. • Ignore irrelevant data. • If your answer doesn’t make sense, check. If your check gives you the same answer, state why it doesn’t make sense.

  40. More on Total Hardness TH = CH + NCH

  41. CO2 CO2(aq) + H2O H++HCO3- H++OH- H++CO32- + Ca2+ Limestone (CaCO3) Calculating Alkalinity

  42. Alkalinity

  43. Example Find carbonate and noncarbonate hardness of water containing: Ca2+ = 80 ppm, Mg2+ = 30 ppm, Pb2+ = 160 mg/L, Fe 3+ = 50 mg/L Na+ = 72 ppm, K+ = 6 ppm Cl- = 100 ppm, SO42- = 201 ppm, HCO3- = 165 ppm pH = 7.5

  44. Reminder • Calculate TH and ALK. • Determine CH. • Calculate NCH.

  45. Example Find the speciation of the hardness of water containing: Ca2+ = 80 mg/L, Mg2+ = 30 mg/L, HCO3- = 165 mg/L pH = 7.5

  46. Reminder • Calculate • CCH. • CNCH • MCH • MNCH • Check your calculations!

  47. Sedimentation Sludge Lime-Soda Softening Lime and/or Soda Ash Hard Water Mixing Flocculation CO2 Sedimentation Soft Water Recarbonation Sludge

  48. Lime-Soda Softening CO2: CO2 + 1 Ca(OH)2  1 CaCO3  + H20 CCH: Ca(HCO3)2 + 1 Ca(OH)22 CaCO3+ 2 H2O CNCH: CaSO4 + 1Na2CO3 1 CaCO3  + Na2SO4 MCH: Mg(HCO3)2 + 1 Ca(OH)21 CaCO3 + MgCO3 + 2 H2O MgCO3 + 1 Ca(OH)2 1Mg(OH)2 + 1CaCO3 MNCH: MgSO4 + 1Na2CO3 MgCO3 + Na2SO4 MgCO3 + 1 Ca(OH)2 1Mg(OH)2 + 1 CaCO3