190 likes | 252 Vues
Reproductive System. Before the Bell: Open Seating: Please fill in the front desks first . Please grab a packet from the front table. . Ground Rules -Appropriate and mature behavior/comments is expected. -Anatomical terms will be used.
E N D
Reproductive System Before the Bell: Open Seating: Please fill in the front desks first. Please grab a packet from the front table.
Ground Rules -Appropriate and mature behavior/comments is expected. -Anatomical terms will be used. -Questions that might involve values, ethics, beliefs, etc. I will not answer but will refer home.
The Reproductive System Reproduction is the process by which life is continued from one generation to the next. A new human life results from the union of two specialized cells, one from a male and the other from a female. These cells, the egg and the sperm, are produced by the reproductive system, the organs that make possible the production of offspring. Egg cell Sperm cell
Seminal vesicles Prostate gland Cowper’s glands Penis Testes Vas deferens Epididymis Scrotum Page 143
The Male Reproductive System Sperm are produced in the testes and mature in the epididymis. From there, they travel through the vas deferens, where they are mixed with seminal fluid, which is produced by the seminal vesicles, the prostrate gland, and Cowper’s glands. This mixture of sperm and seminal fluid is called semen. Muscular contractions force semen through the urethra and out of the body, a process called ejaculation.
Problems of the Male Reproductive System • Males can experience both minor and serious problems with their reproductive systems: • Inguinal hernia • Sterility • Enlarged prostate gland • STIs • Cancer
Care of the Male Reproductive System • Practice self-exam of the scrotum and testicles once a month. • Bathe regularly. • Wear a protective cup or supporter during athletic activities to prevent accidental injuries. • Practice abstinence from sexual activity before marriage.
The Female Reproductive System • The female reproductive system has many functions: • It produces female sex hormones. • It stores egg cells. • It provides a place for fertilization to occur. • It nourishes and protects the fertilized egg as it grows and matures into a new human being.
Ovaries Fallopian tubes Uterus Endometrium Cervix Vagina Page 145
Days 1–13 of the cycle, a new egg cell is maturing inside the ovary. Day 14 of the cycle, ovulation occurs. Day 15 –20, the egg travels through the fallopian tube. Day 21, the egg enters the uterus. The Menstrual Cycle The menstrual cycle is the sequence of events in the reproductive system that occurs from one menstruation to another. A cycle usually lasts about 28 days, but it varies from one female to another.
After 7 days, if the egg has not been fertilized, menstruation begins. Most females begin menstruation between the ages of 9 and 16. Menstruation occurs from puberty until menopause. Menopause, which usually occurs between age 40 and 60, is a period marking the end of a female’s reproductive years.
Fertilization Fertilization is the joining of a male and female reproductive cell to make the first cell of a new human. This cell, the fertilized egg, then moves down the fallopian tube and into the uterus. The fertilized egg attaches to the wall of the uterus and begins to grow.
Development and Birth In the early stages, the fertilized egg is called an embryo. After eight weeks of development, it is called a fetus. The uterus has layers of tissue and a rich blood supply to nourish the developing fetus. After about 40 weeks, the fetus is mature and ready to be born. The walls of the uterus begin to contract. The contractions open the cervix and push the baby out of the uterus and through the cervix. The baby passes through the vagina and out of the female’s body.
Problems of the Female Reproductive System • Females can experience both minor and serious problems with their reproductive systems: • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) • Toxic Shock Syndrome • Infertility • Ovarian Cysts • STIs • Cancer
Care of the Female Reproductive System • Females should have regular checkups by a physician. The following tips will help females take good care of their reproductive systems: • Breast examinations once a month. • Bathe regularly • Record the menstrual periods. • Practice abstinence.
Building Blocks of Life • A unique human body begins as a single cell that is the result of fertilization, the result of the joining together of two special cells, one from each parent: • Egg cell: cell from the mother • Sperm cell: cell from the father
Growth During Pregnancy Soon after fertilization, the cell begins to divide. It forms a cluster of cells that attaches itself to the inside wall of the uterus. The cluster of cells is now called an embryo. These cells continue to divide and form cells that do specific jobs. Over time, cells that do similar jobs combine into tissues, tissues with similar jobs combine into organs, and organs with similar jobs combine into systems. A fetus is the name for the developing organism from the end of the eighth week until birth. The baby is born about nine months after fertilization.
Growth inside the Uterus Food and oxygen in the mother’s blood are carried to the fetus through a blood vessel in the umbilical cord, a tube that connects the fetus and the mother’s placenta. After birth, the cord is cut.
Stages of Birth • About nine months after fertilization, a fetus is fully developed and ready to be born. The birth process occurs in three stages: • Stage one. Mild contractions signal the beginning of the first stage. • Stage two. The contractions are very strong and are occurring more frequently. The contractions push the baby through the cervix and out of the mother’s body. • Stage three. Contractions continue after the baby is born until the placenta is pushed out of the uterus.