Before 2000 BC • No written language • Stories told orally
Eventually written down • Old Testament
After Jesus • Stories told orally for several years
Letters written first (Epistles) • Used in Church • Apostolic authority important
Different styles of writing/types of Literature • Poetry • Prose • Wisdom • History • Prophecy • Parables • Etiological stories (how something came to be)
The Bible is Like Christ • Fully human (Uses human words and actions), uses the language of men • Fully divine
Original Languages of the Bible • Hebrew • Greek • Aramaic
Diaspora (Dispersion) • Jews living outside the Holy Land • Created a need for Greek Scriptures
Septuagint • Greek or Alexandrian canon
Canon • List of Books in the Bible
Deuterocanonical Books • Books written originally in Greek and were removed from Protestant Bibles • 2nd Canon • Jesus quoted from Septuagint, which Included Deut. books
The Church existed before the New Testament was Written • Preaching was emphasized • Most apostles did not write anything • Thousands became Christians without reading any of the NT! • 1-50 AD – Oral (apostolic) teaching/preaching • 50-100 AD – NT written
After Jesus • 1-50 AD: Oral teaching – Apostolic teaching (preaching) • 50-100 AD: NT written. Epistles, then Gospels and Acts, then Revelation
Hebrews 1:1-4. Jesus is the fullness of Revelation • In times past, God spoke in partial and various ways to our ancestors through the prophets; in these last days, he spoke to us through a son, whom he made heir of all things and through whom he created the universe, who is the refulgence of his glory, the very imprint of his being, and who sustains all things by his mighty word. When he had accomplished purification from sins, he took his seat at the right hand of the Majesty on high, as far superior to the angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs.
How canonicity is decided • Orthodoxy – Is it conformed to Christ’s message? • Apostolicity – Is it traceable to the apostles? • Catholicity – Was it used consistently in the liturgy? (Universality) *All NT books can be traced to the apostles!
Apocrypha • False writings
Protestants use Hebrew (Palestinian canon) • Developed by Jews at Council of Jamnia in 90AD Problem: Why let people who deny the divinity of Christ determine the canon?
Protestant • Christian not in communion with the Catholic Church
Council of Rome (382) • OT – 46 books, including all books of the Septuagint • NT – 27 books we include today *Documents of the Council of Rome are still around!
Vulgate • Latin translation of the Bible • St. Jerome translated around 405 AD • Official Bible of the Church
Council of Hippo (393 AD) • Upheld Catholic canon
Council of Trent (1546) • Upheld Catholic canon (made it official)
King James Version (1611) • Most popular protestant Bible
New American Bible Translation used in Mass
Catholic • Universal