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Integrating Solar Panels on building facades in Singapore

Integrating Solar Panels on building facades in Singapore

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Integrating Solar Panels on building facades in Singapore

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  1. Group members: Choong Choy Teng Cui Tingting Do Thi Hong Van GohSiok Lee Le Nguyen Hanh Phuong Nguyen Dinh Song Anh Tan Jia Ling Esther Tran Phuong Quynh Woon Shi Yun Yang Kailin Integrating Solar Panels on building facades in Singapore Presenting to Far East Organisation CEO, Mr Michael Chew

  2. Outline • Introduction • Prospects • Benefits • Installations • Limitations • Overcoming the Limitations • Conclusion

  3. Introduction

  4. Origin of solar panels

  5. Introduction Purpose • Study the feasibility of incorporating façade-integrated solar panels in Singapore context INTRODUCTION - Purpose

  6. Introduction State of our environment • 43 years worth of Oil left • 197 years worth of Gas left • 417 years worth of Coal left INTRODUCTION - Background

  7. Introduction To prepare ourselves for that day, we have to make use of renewable energy technology. Solar Energy  Electrical Energy

  8. Introduction Why Solar Energy • Renewable & inexhaustible • Free energy resource • Pollution-free INTRODUCTION - Background

  9. Introduction Utilization of Solar Energy in Buildings • Cost effective • Energy efficient • Low maintenance cost

  10. Introduction Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) • Installing solar panels as part of building structure • Roofs, curtain walls, and sunshades are potential areas for incorporating solar panels

  11. Introduction Objectives Integrating solar panels on the building facades to • generate clean energy • achieve energy savings INTRODUCTION - Background

  12. Prospects of Solar Panels in Singapore

  13. $50 million MND Research Fund for the Built Environment to encourage sustainable development projects such as integrating solar technologies into building facades. Itcovers 30% to 75% of the qualifying cost of the project. S$17 million Clean Energy Research and Test-bedding (CERT) introduced to provide supports for companies to develop clean solar energy applications using government buildings and facilities. Singapore’s Efforts The National Research Foundation (NRF) identified the field of Clean Energy, with emphasis on solar technology, as a key growth area and dedicate a total of S$170million to develop and build R&D and manpower competencies in Clean Energy over the next five years. Prime Minister Lee HsienLoong announced that clean energy has been elevated as a strategic growth area for Singapore. BCA’s Green Mark Scheme introduced. Sep 2009 Jan 2007 March 2007 2005 1992 2008 Early 2007 Early 2009 2007 The idea of Spore plugging into solar power was raised, discussed and dismissed. Minister of National Development Mah Bow Tan and Minister for Environment and Water Resources Dr Yaacob Ibrahim, put forth the S$1 billion green plan to be implemented over the next five years to help build a greener, more energy efficient and sustainable nation. S$20 million Solar Capability Scheme (SCS) to encourage the integration of solar panels into green building by subsidizing up to 40% of the project costs. Housing and Development Board (HDB) introduced the S$31 million largest solar test-bed project in Singapore, aimed to install solar panels in 30 HDB eco-precincts by 2015.

  14. Prospects Singapore’s Aim • To increase Singapore's cumulative installed base of solar systems from 200kW (in 2008) to 5mW • "Singapore aims to be a 'Living Lab' where companies can test-bed and demonstrate solutions... to help build the critical capabilities of solar players...“ – Dr Beh Swan Gin, EDB's Managing Director

  15. Prospects Suitability in Singapore “High amount, constant and even provision and the predominately diffuse nature of solar radiation are key advantages for grid-connected BIPV in Singapore.” – Steven K. Wittkopf

  16. Prospects Current situation regarding solar energy globally: • Germany and Japan, the leading users of solar power, are a long way ahead in the game. • The price of solar power is falling by 5% a year. • How then will Singapore compete? • It is known that solar panels perform better on the roof than on façade. • We can aim to research on the solutions and export this knowledge to other countries.

  17. Prospects Tampines Grande, one of Singapore’s private sector test-beds, uses Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) panels as part of its façade.

  18. High concentrations of tall buildings per hectare of land • Land limitations in Singapore • Large size of façades Prospects • Large areas available for receiving solar radiation Why on Façade? INTRODUCTION - Background

  19. Prospects • High-rise linear commercial buildings • Upper storeys of building façade

  20. Benefits

  21. Benefits BIPV • Promising renewable energy technology • Viable Green Building Strategy INTRODUCTION - Background

  22. Benefits • Greater material cost saving • Lower cost of electricity • No extra space and cost needed for installation INTRODUCTION - Background

  23. Benefits • Eye-appealing appearance • Weather protection • Environmentally friendly power generation INTRODUCTION - Background

  24. Installation of Solar panel on facade

  25. Installation • Methods of installing solar panels on the façade of the building are similar to the roof. • Installation on the roofs depends on the type of the roof. • Other types of installations are independent like Amorphous or Thin film PV and Building Integration Photovoltaic

  26. Installation • Installation of solar panels on building façade will be similar to the installation of the curtain walls. • Due to the used of BIPV technology on the building façade. • For example, mounting pieces of solar panels onto the structural system of the envelope of the building.

  27. Installation • Types of curtain wall installation: • Stick system • Unit system • Unit and mullion system • Type of installation selected: • Unit and mullion system

  28. Installation • Curtain wall installation unit and mullion system

  29. Installation Below are the steps of installation: • Set out main marking • Installation of anchorage angle plate to floor • Installation of mullion • Installation of horizontal transom • Installation of glass panel with modules integrated

  30. Installation Below are the steps of installation: • Installation of interior mullion trim • Install the cable connection of the solar panel to the switch room • Seal the surrounding with waterproofing compound like sealant (single-stage joint) as a air and rain barrier • Inspection after installation

  31. Installation • Must comply with the building codes. • Must take into consideration all load imposed on the solar panels during design stage.

  32. Installation Connected by a direct current (DC) cable with negative and positive polarities Electricity converted by the solar cells comes out as DC energy. DC energy needs to go through an inverter to convert DC into alternative current (AC) Actual generated power AC will be linked into the electrical switch board. Grid-connected System THE COMPONENTS THAT MAKE UP A TYPICAL GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEM. (SOURCE: HTTP://WWW.SOLARSHOP.CO.UK/SOLAR-POWERED-ELECTRIC.HTM)

  33. Limitations • Position of solar panels • Shading & Shadowing (design & surrounding of the buildings) • Thermal heat transfers • Cost of solar panels

  34. Position of solar panels Why solar panels installed on the façade are not able to be exposed to direct sunlight? (a) Singapore is located near to the equator. (b) Her sun path is always upright, +/- degree

  35. Position of solar panels Why solar panels on façade has lower efficiency as compared to the roof? Solar panels installed on the east or/and west façade will only be exposed to direct sunlight for half the day.

  36. Shading & shadowing Fact: By shading just 10% of a photovoltaic surface can reduce the total output by more than 50%. Hence, the output of power will drop significantly even with small shadows.

  37. Shading & shadowing Factors result in shading and shadowing: • Design of the buildings • Buildings are slender and tall often cast shadows of themselves or on other buildings. • Distances between buildings As compared to roof , façade systems are • most susceptible to shading from adjacent buildings • required great distance between buildings than roof systems

  38. Shading & shadowing • Unwanted shadowing situations will limit the total amount of solar gains on the façade. • It reduces the efficiency of energy production since they do not receive direct sunlight.

  39. Thermal heat transfer During the conversion of energy within the solar panels, heat is generated. Heat will enter into the building and increase energy consumption of the air-conditioning The increase in energy consumption will increase the electrical costs.

  40. Thermal heat transfer • The higher temperature of the solar cells, the lower the efficiency of the conversion to electricity. • For example, the high temperature (75°C) will cause a drop of 25% of the power being converted into electricity.

  41. Cost of solar panel • Solar panels is high capital investments. • Frank Phua of Singaporean solar manufacturer Sunseap Enterprise commented that it would take “16 years to break even compared to buying electricity on the grid”(Tan, 2009)

  42. Cost of solar panel • Professor Lee SiewEang from National University of Singapore mentioned that “currently in Singapore the electricity generated from solar panels is more expensive than buying from the power grid. This is due to a lack of incentives from the government”.

  43. Cost of solar panel • Recently, the Singapore government has introduced some subsidies scheme. • For example, solar capability scheme subsidises up to 40% of the project cost. • Only increase a small number of developers interested in the installation of solar panels.

  44. Cost of solar panel • Main concern is on the initial cost of installation instead of the long run reductions in electrical costs. • Investors worry that if a huge amount of initial cost is spent, there may not be returns in the future. • They would rather rely on the current energy technologies available.

  45. Overcoming Limitations • Position and angle • Thermal heat transfer • Design of building • Cost of solar panels

  46. Overcoming the position & angles • Average hourly clearness index • Solar irradiance • Tilt angle

  47. a. Average hourly clearness index • Characterization of sky conditions over a defined area • Influences amount of sunlight that panel can receive

  48. a. Average hourly clearness index

  49. b. Solar irradiance • Amount of solar energy that arrives at a specific area at a specific time • Determine if the location of panels is able to receive optimal sunlight

  50. b. Solar irradiance