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Designing Products & Engineering

Designing Products & Engineering. People,Problem-Solving, and Practicality. Industrial Engineering: the “People and Systems” Engineers. What is Industrial Engineering?.

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Designing Products & Engineering

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  1. Designing Products &Engineering

  2. People,Problem-Solving, and Practicality Industrial Engineering: the “People and Systems” Engineers

  3. What is Industrial Engineering? Industrial engineers design, install, and improve the complex systems which provide both goods and services vital to our society and economy. These systems integrate people, materials, and equipment, and thereby place unique demands for breadth of preparation upon industrial engineers. The traditional arenas for the practice of industrial engineering are the manufacturing facilities of industry. However, today fully one-third of practicing industrial engineers are employed in non-manufacturing enterprises such as hospitals, banks, and government.

  4. Industrial Engineering • Industrial engineers perform the following tasks in manufacturing and service industries. • Forecast the demand the product • Prepare a plan to produce the product • Analyze the cost and benefits of the product • Design the layout of the plant to produce the product • Select the manufacturing processes to make the product • Identify the people and their skills for production and supervision • Integrate people, materials, machines, and processes to work together • Schedule the machines and processes for production • Supervise the day-to-day operation of the facility • Design the workplace and procedures for workers to follow • Handle occupational and safety concerns • Model and analyze the performance of the system and find ways to improve it

  5. Areas of Study Within Industrial Engineering1. Human Factors (Ergonomics)

  6. Areas of Study Within Industrial Engineering2. Optimization/Operation Research Factories Distributor/Retailer Warehouse Customers Product Flow Information Flow

  7. Deterministic Operations Research – Optimization Goal: to Choose the best (optimal) solution satisfying the limitations (constraints) of the system • Stochastic Operations Research Goal: to evaluate the behavior of a stochastic (random) system

  8. Areas of Application • Manufacturing and Production Schedule jobs on the shop floor Plan facilities layout Formulate inventory policy Improve reliability of products • Business Determine advertising strategy Determine mix of product to sell Select an investment portfolio • Public Sector Locate and equip emergency facilities Design traffic systems

  9. Facilities Design

  10. Saws Drills Office Work Cell Tool Room Work Cell Floor Plan

  11. E.R.Triage room Patient A - broken leg E.R. Admissions Patient B - erratic pacemaker Surgery Laboratories Radiology E.R. beds Pharmacy Billing/exit Emergency Room Layout

  12. Store Layout - with Dairy, Bread, High Drawer Items in Corners

  13. Forecasting Aggregate Capacity Planning Sales & Marketing Aggregate Production Planning Master Production Planning Material Requirement Planning Shipping & Receiving Capacity Requirement Planning Operations Scheduling Shop Floor Control Warehousing Production Planning and Control

  14. Areas of Study Within Industrial Engineering3. Simulation

  15. Areas of Study Within Industrial Engineering4. Quality Control

  16. Areas of Quality • Process Capability Evaluates conformance to product specifications • Statistical Process Control Looks at the process stability over time • Process Modeling Forms a mathematical model of the process How do the inputs of the system relate to the outputs? • Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (GR&R) Evaluates the measurement system • Diagnostics Identifies the sources of any problems

  17. Human Factors Engineering Work Measurements and Work Design Facilities Planning and Design Reliability Engineering Experimental Design For Engineering Production Planning and Control Engineering Project Management Integrated Manufacturing Systems Expert Systems in Engineering Industrial Robotics Quality Control Automated Inspection Integrated Product and Process Design Queuing Methods for Services and Manufacturing Introductory Decision Analysis for Engineering Simulation Modeling and Analysis Engineering Information Systems Contemporary Topics in Industrial Engineering Sample Industrial Engineering Courses

  18. Career Opportunities for Industrial Engineers • Industrial engineers are the “problem solvers” in all organizations. Career opportunities for industrial engineering are limitless. • A sample list of career opportunities for industrial engineers include: Manufacturing: regardless of the product manufactured, every manufacturing company needs IEs to plan the facility, perform economic analyses, plan and control production, manage people, handle safety issues, improve quality, evaluate performance, etc. Health Services: hospitals and clinics need IEs to perform cost/benefit analyses, schedule work load, manage people, evaluate safety concerns, design and maintain facilities, etc. Transportation: airlines, ground transportation, trucking, and warehousing companies need IEs to design the best schedules and routes, perform economic analyses, manage crews, etc. Financial: banks and other savings and lending institutions need IEs to design financial plans, perform economic analyses, etc. Government: local and federal governments need IEs to design and enforce safety systems, environmental policies, plan for and operate in a number of organizations. Consulting: IEs may work as consultants to help design and analyze a variety of systems including information systems, manufacturing and service systems.

  19. What is Engineering Design? • The systematic and creative application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, machines, processes, and systems.

  20. The basic purpose of any organization is to provide products or services to their customers. Thus, the design of these products and services is essential to the livelihood of a company. But, what are the characteristics of an Effective Design?

  21. Effective Design • Effective designs provide a competitive edge by: • Bringing new ideas to the market quickly • Doing a better job of satisfying customer needs • Making new products easier to manufacture, use, and repair than existing products

  22. Types of Design and Redesign • Original Design (or Inventing) Involves elaborating, original solutions for a given task. The result of original design is an invention. • Adaptive Design (or Synthesis) Involves adapting a known system to a changed task or evolving a significant subsystem of a current product (such as antilock brakes). • Variant Design (or Modification) Involves varying the parameters (size, geometry, material properties, control parameters, etc.) of certain aspects of a product to develop a new and more robust design.

  23. Product Design: • Specifies which materials are to be used • Determines dimensions and tolerances • Defines the appearance of the product • Sets standards for performance.

  24. Design has a tremendous impact on the quality of a final product or service. Quality in the design process involves: • Matching product or service characteristics with customer requirements • Ensuring that customer requirements are met in the simplest and least costly manner • Reducing the time required to design a new product or service, and • Minimizing the revisions necessary to make a design workable.

  25. The Design Process

  26. Sources of idea generation • Surveying suppliers, distributors, and salespersons • Monitoring trade journals • Analyzing warranty claims, customer complaints, and other failures • Surveying potential customers • Bench marking: Comparing a product or process against the best-in-class product. • Reverse engineering: Carefully dismantling a competitor’s product in order to improve one’s own product.

  27. Involvement of Different Functional Departments in the Design Process Marketing Department takes the idea and: • Forms a product concept • Conducts a study on the feasibility of the proposed product or service • If the proposed product meets certain expectations, performance specifications are developed.

  28. Involvement of Different Functional Departments in the Design Process • Design Engineers take the performance specifications and: • Develop preliminary technical specifications, and later • Develop detailed design specifications. • Manufacturing Engineers take the detailed performance specifications and: • Develop a process plan that includes specific requirements for equipment, tooling, and fixtures. • Production Engineers take these manufacturing specifications and schedule production

  29. Feasibility study Idea generation Product feasible? Preliminary design Final design Process planning Prototype Design & Manufacturing Specifications Manufacturing The Design Process Yes No

  30. Flexibility Cost A Decision Making Process • Idea generation & pre-design planning • Customer Requirements • Functional Specification • Product Specifications • Concept Generation • Concept Selection • Engineering Design • Engineering Evaluation • Prototype and Testing • Manufacturing Design

  31. Breaking Down Barriers

  32. Final design is concerned with how the product will perform. It consists of three phases: 1. Functional design is concerned with how the product will perform. 2. Form design refers to the physical appearance of a product. 3. Production design is concerned with the ease and cost of manufacturing the product.

  33. Form Design(How The Product Looks)

  34. Functional Design(How The Product Performs) • Reliability • probability product performs intended function for specified length of time • A measure for reliability is Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF). • Maintainability • ease and/or cost or maintaining/repairing product • A measure for maintainability is Mean Time To Repair (MTTR).

  35. DFM Guidelines 1. Minimize the number of parts 2. Develop a modular design 3. Design parts for multi-use 4. Avoid separate fasteners 5. Eliminate adjustments 6. Design for top-down assembly

  36. 7. Design for minimum handling 8. Avoid tools 9. Minimize subassemblies 10. Use standard parts when possible 11. Simplify operations 12. Design for efficient and adequate testing 13. Use repeatable & understood processes 14. Analyze failures 15. Rigorously assess value

  37. Design Simplification (a) The original design (b) Revised design (c) Final design Assembly using common fasteners One-piece base & elimination of fasteners Design for push-and-snap assembly

  38. Listening to Customers

  39. Customers’ Requirements • Normal Requirements are typically what we get by just asking customers what they want. • Expected Requirements are often so basic the customer may fail to mention them - until we fail to perform them. For example, if coffee is served hot, customers barely notice it. If it's cold or too hot, dissatisfaction occurs. Expected requirements must be fulfilled. • Exciting Requirements are difficult to discover. They are beyond the customer's expectations. For example, if full meals were served on a flight from Chicago to Indianapolis, that would be exciting. If not, customers would hardly complain.

  40. Kano Model [Noriaki Kano 1984].

  41. Making Economic Decisions • Engineering economy: the discipline concerned with the economic aspects of engineering. It involves the systematic evaluation of the costs and benefits of proposed technical projects. Some Examples • Choosing the best design for a high-efficiency gas furnace • Recommending whether an overnight delivery service should be purchased or leased

  42. Rational Decision-Making Process • Recognize a decision problem • Define the goals or objectives • Collect all the relevant information • Identify a set of feasible decision alternatives • Select the decision criterion to use • Select the best alternative

  43. Example: Equipment & Process Selection • How do you choose between Plastic Composite and Steel sheet stock for the auto body panel? • The choice of material will dictate the manufacturing process for the body panel as well as manufacturing costs.

  44. Which Material to Choose?

  45. Engineering Costs General Cost Terms • Manufacturing Costs Direct materials Direct labor Mfg. Overhead • Non-manufacturing Costs Overhead Marketing Administrative

  46. Cost Components • Material Cost Direct material cost – Bill of Material (BOM) Non-formula material cost – expense of consumables used during processing • Conversion Cost Capital depreciation Direct labor MBR – management budget review Scrap Tools and Dies Transportation

  47. Cost Classification for Predicting Cost Behavior • Cost Behaviors Fixed costs Variable costs • Average unit costs

  48. Fixed Costs Fixed costs per unit of production (F/Q) Total fixed costs (F) Production volume (Q) Productionvolume (Q)

  49. Variable Costs • Def: Costs that vary depending on the level of production or sales • Cost behavior: Increase or decrease proportionally according to the level of volume • Examples: Costs of raw material, packaging material, direct labor, machine utilities are main variable costs.

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