LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSCHILEPART 3: EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMISB: Other Notable Earthquakes Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN CHILE FLOODS GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES WINDSTORMS EARTHQUAKES/TSUNAMIS HIGH BENEFIT/COST FROM BECOMING DISASTER NRESILIENT VOLCANOES WILDFIRES GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
Natural Phenomena That Cause Disasters Planet Earth’s heat flow causes movement of lithospheric plates, which causes subduction, which causes EARTHQUAKES
TWENTY-FIVE YEARS LATERM7.5 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES CHILE MARCH 3, 1985 THE SECOND LARGEST EARTHQUAKE IN THE WORLD AFTER MEXICO IN 1985
IMPACTS OF THE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI • Damage from strong ground shaking occurred throughout central Chile. • At least 177 people were killed, and 2,575 injured. • A tsunami was also generated, and its waves traversed the Pacific, striking Valparaíso, Hawaii, Alaska, Tahiti, and Japan
FIFTY YEARS LATERM8.8 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES CENTRAL CHILE:3:34 am on February 27, 2010 Subduction Zone Quake 500 Times More Energy than the M7.0 March 12, 2010 Haiti Quake 800+ Deaths; 500+ Injured Tsunami Waves Travel Across Pacific Estimated Loss: $30 Billion
The Chilean people had to cope with the demands associated with: 1) a mega-quake, 2) a vigorous aftershock sequence with large events, 3) local tsunami wave run up, 4) looting in the affluent sector, and 5) recovery after the loss of 15 percent of the GDP.
Even though Chile has experienced many past earthquakes, had been implementing a modern building code since the 1960-85 events, and was well prepared to respond to all aspects of the emergency, it was still a disaster.
Newly built apartment buildings were severely damaged or collapsed. Flames consumed buildings and a prison. Millions of people fled into streets darkened by the failure of power lines. Roads were damaged and bridges collapsed, causing cars and trucks to crash.
An estimated 1 ½ million buildings were damaged, with about 1/3 of them collapsing, along with extensive and wide spread damage to the infrastructure.
The damage, an estimated $30 billion, was equivalent to 15 percent of Chile’s gross domestic product.
Swiss Re, the world's second-largest reinsurer, said the impact on the financial/insurance sector would be between $4 and $7 billion.
The aftershocks of the mega-earthquake provided an opportunity for measuring ground and building response for a range of excitation levels and site conditions.
Damage from tsunami wave run up was worse locally along the coast of Chile than at distant locations along the Pacific rim.