Don Klimchuk, P. Eng.City of VancouverEngineering Services Session #78 Pro Walk / Pro Bike Conference Victoria, BC September 10th, 2004
Greenway Routes Linear public corridors for pedestrians & cyclists that connect parks, nature reserves, cultural features, historic sites, neighbourhoods and retail areas.
Transportation Plans • City of Vancouver Transportation Plan(1997) • Downtown Transportation Plan (2002)
3 Main Financing Methods 1. Capital Budgets 2. New Developments 3. Cost-Sharing Partnerships
1. Capital Budget - Overview • About $4M a year directly for Pedestrians and Bicycles: • New Sidewalks, • Sidewalk Reconstruction, • Curb Ramp Program, • Bicycle Network, • Beautification / Street Trees, • Pedestrian Structures, • Greenways, and • Pedestrian Signals. 50% increase in funding since Completion of 1997 Transportation Plan.
1. Capital Budget – Local Improvements “Local Improvements” – capital improvement (sidewalk, curb, pavement, etc.) that specially benefits adjacent properties, with a portion of the cost recovered by a special tax on those properties. 2004 Review • Changes made to expedite completion of sidewalk network. • Priority order: • transit routes • arterial streets • pedestrian collector routes • higher density streets • local residential streets
1. Capital Budget – Local Improvements 2004 Review (continued) • Targets set for completion of sidewalk: • on both sides of all transit routes by 2007 (date that all transit • routes will have wheel chair access), and • on both sides of all arterial streets by 2009. Changes made to cost-sharing bylaws: PO = Property Owner
2. New Developments - Building Lines “Building Lines” - establish where the legal boundary of a street (i.e. property line) will be after a planned future widening • only landscaping and temporary • structures permitted between existing • property line and building line • when transportation project • proceeds, only the needed land is • purchased (i.e. no building purchase, • demolition, etc.) • implemented beginning in the 1930’s • for major road widening projects
2. New Developments - Building Lines (cont’d) • Review – using building lines to support wider sidewalks, bike lanes and transit priority
2. New Developments - Building Lines (cont’d) • Review (continued) • Downtown Transportation Plan reviewing pedestrian related building • lines on Davie St.
2. New Developments – Zoning and Development Policy • Commercial Zoning • recently commercial zoning (C2) was amended to require new buildings • to be set back a minimum of 2’ from the property line • > effectively widens • the sidewalk (can • walk along property • line) • > provides strip for • complimentary • commercial uses • such as small • sidewalk cafes, • merchandise • displays, sandwich • board signs, etc.
2. New Developments – Zoning and Development Policy (cont’d) • Development Streetscape Policies • Council policies for specific high-density residential development areas • set detailed streetscape design standards and building setbacks • > sidewalk and boulevard treatment, • tree species and locations, tree • grates, pedestrian lighting, benches, • etc. • > building setbacks of 6’ to 12’ (allows • second row of ‘street’ trees) > deposit for estimated costs collected at time permits issued
2. New Developments – Zoning and Development Policy (cont’d) • Development Weather Protection Guidelines • Zoning guidelines in most commercial areas require the provision of • awnings or canopies: • > “The ground floor of • arterial frontages should • have a continuous, • architecturally integrated • weather protection and • signage system. This may • be composed of glass and • steel, canvas or vinyl, but • should be designed as part • of the building and function • principally as weather • protection.”
2. New Developments – Zoning and Development Policy (cont’d) • Development Cost Levies (DCLs) for Transportation • Implemented as part of the City’s recent • Financing Growth review: • > 2-year long public process for • implementing new city-wide • development charges • Charge against new development to pay • part of the capital costs generated by • residential, industrial and commercial • growth: • > $6 per square foot, except for • industrial ($2 per square foot) • > collected at the building permit stage • > governed by provincial legislation
2. New Developments – Zoning and Development Policy (cont’d) • Development Cost Levies for Transportation (cont’d) • Transportation projects receive 22% of total DCL revenues: • Estimated • Project Annual Rev. • Bikeways $ 180,000 • Greenways $ 120,000 • Arterial Improvements $ 540,000 • Downtown Streetcar $ 640,000 • Neighbourhood Centres $ 160,000 • Major Sustainable Projects $ 360,000 • Total $2,000,000
2. New Developments – Zoning and Development Policy (cont’d) • Development Cost Levies for Transportation (cont’d) • Based on estimated transportation growth costs for the next 25 years: • > Total of $230 million in project costs • > About 50% assumed to be growth related • > Funding from other sources (senior • government, property owners, etc.) • netted out to come up with an estimate • of $110 million for transportation growth • related projects • > 22% allocation for transportation was derived by taking the above • transportation cost, and dividing it by the total for all eligible • categories (includes parks, replacement housing and childcare • facilities).
2. New Developments – Zoning and Development Policy (cont’d) • Community Amenity Contributions (CACs) • Growth charge for local amenities in a community where a rezoning • (increase in density) has occurred • > condition of rezoning approval • > City receives a portion of the lift in land value • > Initially, all CACs were negotiated with • developers on a case by case basis • > Financing Growth review set a flat rate • ($3/ sq. ft.) for most re-zonings; only • “non-standard” re-zonings (large sites and • downtown sites) negotiated • > Can be used for a wide variety of services • > Types of amenities, including transportation improvements (if any), • are determined through rezoning public consultation process
2. New Developments – Zoning and Development Policy (cont’d) • Community Amenity Contributions (CACs) • Guidelines: • Serve the site and/or community in which the rezoning occurs; • 2. Be growth-related, or meet past deficiencies or other community priorities; • 3. Be identified through: • a) An evaluation of the full range of City services and of the level of • existing City amenities in the area, and • b) Public input obtained during the rezoning, and through community • plans or Visions, and/or city-wide plans and policies; and • 4. Operationally viable and within City servicing standards; and • 5. Approved by City Council as a Community Amenity Contribution.
2. New Developments – Zoning and Development Policy (cont’d) • Servicing Agreements • Large re-zonings typically require a Servicing Agreement that includes • transportation upgrades (i.e. dedication of new streets, walkways, • bike lanes, pedestrian signals, etc.) needed to service the development. • A Public Realm Plan provides details of sidewalk treatments, street • furniture, lighting type and location, etc. • > re-zoning condition • > newly dedicated streets and rights-of-way are designed and • installed by the developer at the time each site is serviced • > developer is also responsible for a 2-year warranty period, in which • they must maintain all components • > the City takes over maintenance after the warranty period; to help • offset costs of maintenance and repair, developers are typically • asked to provide a 10% oversupply of non-standard items such as • pavers
2. New Developments – Zoning and Development Policy (cont’d) • Servicing Agreements – examples Public Realm Plan (Great Northern Way Lands) New waterfront walkway (Coal Harbour)
2. New Developments – Zoning and Development Policy (cont’d) • Concord “Green Links” (Parking Pay-in-Lieu) • >Part of a 1990 parking agreement for the • re-zoning and development of the former • Expo 86 site • > Developer agreed to provide payment for • improved transit, walking and cycling • connections to the downtown, in exchange • for reduced underground parking • requirements (870 stalls x $8500/stall = • $7.4M) • > Paid in full before the issuance of the first • occupancy permit for each development site • > About $2M received to date, with balance phased in between now and 2013
2. New Developments – Zoning and Development Policy (cont’d) • By-law Requirements for Off-Street Amenities • Parking By-law • Includes requirements relating to the amount, location, and design of bicycle parking, including specifications governing enclosures, racks, security and clothing lockers • Building By-law • Includes corresponding requirements for showers and change rooms
3. Cost-sharing Partnerships • Regional Government (TransLink) • “TransLink” – Greater Vancouver Transportation • Authority; formed in 1999 (via Provincial legislation) to • deliver regional transportation services. • Sources of revenue include: • transit fares • gasoline taxes • sales tax on paid parking • residential & commercial property taxes • BC Hydro (electric utility) levy
3. Cost-sharing Partnerships (cont’d) • Regional Government (TransLink) (cont’d) • Minor Capital Program ($3.9 million/year - Vancouver) • 50% cost-sharing provided for • safety and “people-moving” • improvements to the region’s • Major Road Network (MRN) • Eligible projects include • pedestrian crossing • improvements (signals, corner • bulges, etc.) and bike routes/ • crossings on the MRN • Discussions between TransLink and municipalities, on increased flexibility to fund more walking and cycling projects, are scheduled for this fall
3. Cost-sharing Partnerships (cont’d) • Regional Government (TransLink) (cont’d) • Bicycle Infrastructure Program (approx. $900,000/year - Vancouver) • 50% cost-sharing for bicycle route construction • covered in Session 39 (Sept. 9th) – Role of GVTA Bicycle Programs for the Vancouver Region
3. Cost-sharing Partnerships (cont’d) • Provincial Government • Cycling Network Program (1995 – 2001) • Contributed over $1M towards $4M total in bicycle route expansion projects • Part of “conditional” grants program for BC municipalities • Eliminated as part of overall provincial cutbacks • Program was initiated after lobbying by senior City staff • City has requested provincial government to restore funding
3. Cost-sharing Partnerships (cont’d) • Provincial Government (cont’d) • 2) Rapid Transit Project Integration Funds • Expo SkyTrain Line • BC Parkway Greenway • - linear walking and cycling path • located under the SkyTrain • guideway • - initially sponsored by 7-11 stores • Millennium SkyTrain Line • Municipal Integration Fund • - local amenities negotiated • as part of access agreement • to City streets and rights-of-way • - included a new greenway and • plazas
3. Cost-sharing Partnerships (cont’d) • Federal Government • Opportunities Envelope Fund • Up to 50% cost sharing for reducing greenhouse gas emissions • $ 180 million nationally over 3 years • Vancouver has submitted a “Gold Medal Transportation Alternatives” application through the provincial governments. Includes: • > $5.3 million for walking and cycling infrastructure in the downtown • > $1 million for supporting safe walking and biking routes to school • Application supports City’s draft • Community Climate Change • Action Plan (Vancouver’s • contribution towards meeting • Kyoto targets)
3. Cost-sharing Partnerships (cont’d) • Federal Government (cont’d) • 2) Urban Transportation Showcase Program • Up to one-third federal cost sharing for projects that demonstrate, evaluate and promote transportation greenhouse gas reductions • TransLink and Greater Vancouver • Application approved: • > $16.5 million in total, with $5.5 • million in federal funding • > Vancouverprojects includes: • - Central Valley Greenway • ($6.4 million total) • - SkyTrain Station Precinct • Improvements ($3 million • total - improved sidewalks, • lighting, street furniture, • bus shelters, bicycle lockers, traffic calming, signals at 3 stations)
3. Cost-sharing Partnerships (cont’d) • Federal Government (cont’d) • Vancouver Agreement (Downtown Eastside Revitalization) • Part of commitment by the federal government, the provincial government and the City of Vancouver to support sustainable economic, social and community development • Funding has included streetscape improvements (greenway design and construction, pedestrian lighting, etc. • 4) Canada/BC Infrastructure Program • Current program began in 2000 (5-year program) • covers a variety of hard and soft infrastructure projects • costs shared equally between federal, provincial and local governments (about $800M in total) • Some bicycle routes funded in previous programs
3. Cost-sharing Partnerships (cont’d) • Private Sector • Street Furniture and Amenities Program • City partnership (2002 agreement) with Viacom / JC Decaux, for the provision and maintenance of a coordinated suite of street furniture, at no cost to the City • New infrastructure provided in exchange for exclusive rights for bus shelter advertising • Higher service levels and improved aesthetic quality than previously provided • Includes bus shelters, benches, litter receptacles, news paper box racks, bike racks and pedestrian signage/maps • 10% of advertising space made available for community oriented advertising, free of charge • Projected city benefit of $135 million over a twenty year term, including guaranteed revenue sharing of $1.5 million/year (pays for administration, litter receptacle emptying, etc.
3. Cost-sharing Partnerships (cont’d) • Residents • Green Streets Program • Offers residents an opportunity to become • volunteer street gardeners in their • neighbourhood by sponsoring a traffic • circle or corner bulge garden • Volunteers can tend either city supplied or their • own plantings • City support includes bi-annual newsletter, a • Gardener’s Information website, free advice • from a certified Master Gardener and an annual • Green Streets Garden Party
3. Cost-sharing Partnerships (cont’d) • Non-Governmental Organizations • Better Environmentally Sound Transportation (BEST) • Promotes local sustainable • transportation and land-use • planning, and pedestrian, • cycling and transit-oriented • neighbourhoods • With the support of a $1 million • award from VanCity Credit Union, • BEST is helping to complete the • Central Valley Greenway • Partnership with TransLink, the • GVRD and the Cities of • Vancouver, Burnaby • and New Westminster
Conclusions • As a first step, develop policies and detailed plans to act on • Use outside funding to stretch capital dollars • Lobby senior governments for cost-sharing programs • Look for win-win opportunities with developers, the private sector and your community members
Don Klimchuk, P. Eng. Strategic Transportation Planning Branch, Engineering Services, City of Vancouver Phone: 604-873-7345 Email: email@example.com