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Colonial Crisis 1754-1775

Colonial Crisis 1754-1775

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Colonial Crisis 1754-1775

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  1. Colonial Crisis 1754-1775

  2. Colonial Crisis 1754-1775 Townsend Act (sugar, stamp) Main form of protests Non-Consumption agreements (1767-68) Non-Importation agreements Daughters of Liberty (examples of protest) Boston in Turmoil – Troops requested

  3. Colonial Crisis 1754-1775 • Military Occupation of Boston (1768) • 3,000 troops deployed to Boston – quartered in houses. • Increased Tensions • Boston Massacre 3/5/1770 • Son’s of Liberty response

  4. Colonial Crisis 1754-1775 III. Tea Party/Coercive Acts • Lord North (PM)repeals Townsend Act -except tea tax • Calm before the storm • Gaspee Investigation • “committee of correspondence” • Judges paid w/Tea Taxes • Lower tea prices

  5. Colonial Crisis 1754-1775 III. Tea Party/Coercive Acts (cont.) • Taxation w/o representation • Boycotts? Non-consumption? Intimidation? • Violence - destruction of tea • Coercive Acts (cause and effect) (Intolerable Acts) • Boston Port Act (closed Boston Harbor) • Mass Government Act • Impartial Admin of Justice Act • Quartering Act • Quebec Act (Ohio Valley)

  6. Colonial Crisis 1754-1775 • The First Continental Congress • Growing unrest results in a Congress being called in Philadelphia (Sep 1774) • Delegates wanted to articulate their rights as British Subjects • Possible responses to Coercive Acts - options?

  7. Colonial Crisis 1754-1775 • The First Continental Congress (cont.) • “We ask for peace, liberty, and security – no new rights” • Stressed lack of reps in Parliament – therefore each colony had the right to govern (tax) themselves • “Cheerfully consent” to trade policy – not as a covert way of raising revenue • Limited boycott for one year – enforced by Committees for Public Safety etc. • Sense of rebellion throughout the colonies

  8. Colonial Crisis 1754-1775 • Open Insurrection (1774-75) A. The Powder Alarm - 1 Sep 1774 Boston was at the boiling point – however, the real threat was in the countryside • Mass Gov Act was disregarded – not enough troops to enforce the Acts in rural areas • Gen Gage sends British Army into the countryside to confiscate gun powder • False alarm about colonists being killed causes 1,000’s of militiamen to rally

  9. Colonial Crisis 1754-1775 • Open Insurrection (1774-75) • Lexington and Concord (Apr 18, 1775) • Gen Gage requests 20K more troops (the surge) • Asked to repeal Coercive Acts – denied • Ordered to arrest the trouble makers – rural areas outside of Boston • Surprise Attack on arms caches in Lexington and Concord • Early warning Revere + Dawes

  10. Colonial Crisis 1754-1775 • Open Insurrection (1774-75) • Lexington and Concord (Apr 18, 1775) (cont.) • Confusion in Lexington – Militia fired on 8 Militia KIA, 10 WIA • British march onto Concord where they are confronted at Old North Bridge(3/2 KIA) • British destroy some buildings, seize some weapons then retreat back to Boston

  11. Colonial Crisis 1754-1775 • Open Insurrection (1774-75) • Lexington and Concord (Apr 18, 1775) (cont.) • British forces are harassed and ambushed all the way back to Boston – excessive casualties (Powder Alarm response) 73 KIA, 174 WIA, 26 MIA • "Whoever looks upon them [the Rebels] as an irregular mob will be much mistaken." Lord Percy

  12. Colonial Crisis 1754-1775 • Open Insurrection (1774-75) • Point of “No Return” • “The Shot Heard Around the World” • Britain sends more troops, the Royal Navy and competent military leadership to the Americas • Americans begin to take up arms (seizure of magazines etc.) • Royal Govs quickly loose control • Boston becomes the focal point .