Chapters X - XVI REVIEW
Neuter Words • Some 2nd declension nouns are neuter • These words end with –um or –ium in nominative singular • These words end with –a for both nominative and accusative plural (note – this can be confusing, as we are used to thinking of an –a ending as singular!!!)
Nouns are listed with 2 parts • The 1st part listed in the vocabulary is the nominative singular • The 2nd part listed is the genitive singular • The genitive singular is important to know • It directs us to which declension the noun belongs to • It lets us know if the e remains or disappears in nouns that end with –er in nominative sing.
The Ablative Case(Ablative of Place FROM which) • This type of prepositional phrase uses 3 different prepositions (2 of which have 2 forms) to show movement away from a place. The noun following the preposition (the object of the preposition) will use an ablative ending. • a, ab – from, away from (outside) • ē, ex – from, out from (inside) • Dē – from, down from (also means about or concerning)
The Accusative CasePlace TO Which • To show that the subject is going ‘to’ a place, we use the accusative case for the object of the preposition (the noun that follows the preposition). This makes sense, because the place someone is going ‘receives’ the person who is going there. • ad insulam (to the island).
The Vocative Case • The Vocative Case ending is used to call or address someone (voco means call!) • For the vocative form of most nouns, we just use the nominative form. There are 2 exceptions: • Nouns that end with –us will change to –e (Marce – pronounced mark – uh) • Nouns that end with –ius will change to ī (Julius become Juli – pronounced jule - ee
Noun-Adjective Agreement • What is the Adjective Rule? • Does our rule say ‘agree’ or ‘match’? • While most of the time, the endings do match, there are times the endings do not look the same. • Masculine nouns in the 1st declension (agricola, nauta, poeta – nautae boni, agricola bonus) • 2nd declension nouns ending with –r or –er (puer parvus, vir barbarus, equus pulcher)
Nouns ending with –r or -er • Nouns are listed with 2 parts. The 1st part is the nominative singular, which is the only place these nouns will end with –r or –er. • The 2nd part of the noun shows if the –e- remains or disappears throughout the declension of the noun. The 2nd part is genitive singular (the 1st part is nominative singular).
Adjectives Ending with –er • There are also adjectives which end with –er in the masculine singular. • Adjectives are listed in vocabulary in this order: masculine, feminine, neuter • The feminine and neuter forms show if the –e- remains or disappears in all the other places of the declension.
2nd Conjugation Verbs • Stem vowel of 2nd conjugation verbs is ē. • Present stem is formed by removing the –re ending from the 2nd principal part
The Perfect Tense • The perfect stem is formed by removing the –i ending from the 3rd principal part. • To conjugate in the perfect tense, add the perfect endings to the perfect stem. • -i -imus • -isti -istis • -it -erunt • Translate by using the past tense or helping verbs has, have, did.
Present Tense – ‘To Be’ • An irregular verb. The stem changes, although the endings are the same as the verb chart, if you remember that both –m and –o are often endings for 1st per. sing. • P.P – sum, esse, fui, futurus sum sumus es estis est sunt (est can mean is, it is, or there is and sunt can mean are, there are or they are)
Sentence Analysis • Labeling parts of the sentence is very helpful. • Following translation tips is essential!!!