A Unique Collaboration Between Scientists and Educators Designing Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance Monitors Deborah Scherrer, Ray Mitchell, William Clark, Richard Styner, Philip Scherrer, Umran Inan, Morris Cohen, Justin Tan, Shannon Lee, Sharad Khanal, Scott Winegarden, Hao Thai, Paul Mortfield Stanford University and Local Schools
Quick Overview • Motivations • The Plan • Objectives • The Monitors – SID and AWESOME • Structure • Speed Bumps • The Team
Funders Research experience for teachers & students Long-term relationships between teacher interns & scientists More under-represented students into science Quantitative results Educators Experience with how scientists think & do Content knowledge Hands-on, real science, to take back to the classroom Build EXCITEMENT & enthusiasm for science amongst students Motivations • Scientists • Educators support their research • Effective experience for teachers • Tap expertize of teacher • Minimize overhead of training & supervision
The Plan Team community college & high school educators with scientists to: • Design, develop, & classroom-test VLF radio receivers that track changes to the Earth’s ionosphere caused by solar activity • Provide hands-on, authentic science experience for teachers and students • Gather data useful to researchers
Details • Based on AAVSO original concept • 2 versions: • SID – inexpensive (~$150) • AWESOME – research quality (~$3000) • Preassembled, but students build their own antenna (~$10) • Centralized data repository & chat site
Objectives • Place 100 SIDs and 15 AWESOMES • Target under-represented high schools & community colleges • Leverage from CISM Partners • Teacher workshops • University application • Integration into teacher-training courses • Access to web-based training • Distribute in a Partnership model, to encourage scientist-teacher collaborations
Scientific Goals • Understand the causes & effects solar activity has on the Earth, hopefully for prediction capabilities (daytime data) • Understand the electrodynamic coupling between the troposphere, mesosphere, and the lower ionosphere driven by lightning and thunderstorm systems (nighttime data)
IHY 2007 • The United Nations and organizers of the International Heliophysical Year, 2007, have designated these Space Weather Monitors as official IHY instruments, to be placed in 191 countries around the world.
VLF Transmitters 24 around the world Antenna Wires Primarily U.S. Navy stations for communicating with submarines “NLK” 24.8 KHz Navy Radio Station, Jim Creek, WA 1 cycle = 7.5 miles (12 km) 200’ Towers • VLF signals can be received all over the world, because of the ionosphere!
SID Low Cost (~$150) Single band 1 sample/5 seconds Preassembled & tuned Students build antenna Available free to underserved schools AWESOME Moderate cost (~$3000) Broadband; sample rate of 100kHz on each channel Capture ELF/VLF frequencies ~30 Hz - 50kHz Dual use system: Daytime: monitor solar activity Nighttime: monitor atmospheric phenomena (e.g. lightning) So sensitive that nearly any signal above the ambient Earth noise floor can be detected Data useable for ionospheric and solar researchers Our Monitors
Detecting Solar Flares – SID(s) SID Events! Not all events are readily explainable – students can research these
GOES-12 Weather Satellite Detecting X-Rays
Connecting SID to GOES Data C5.9 M1.3 C4.5 C3.8 Students have also found flares not cataloged by GOES!!!
Connecting SID events to sunspots (Active Regions) #Event Begin Max End Obs Q Type Loc/Frq Particulars Reg# #------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1960 + 1727 1736 1744 G12 5 XRA 1-8A C4.5 3.1E-03 0424 1990 + 1930 1946 1954 G12 5 XRA 1-8A C5.9 5.9E-03 0424 2000 + 2112 2134 2140 G12 5 XRA 1-8A C3.8 3.1E-03 0424 2040 + 2341 2354 0002 G12 5 XRA 1-8A M1.3 8.5E-03 0424
Funding NSF-CISM NASA Teachers Ionospheric Researchers Solar Researchers Students AAVSO Partnerships Teacher Workshops & courses CISM Sites Other scientists, universities NASA colleagues Amateur radio clubs Science museums NCAR Rice U Amateur astronomy clubs 5 AWESOME AAVSO Web-based training in space weather NCAR Exploratorium Centralized database & communications D D = Includes diversity component Technology & expertize D Integration back into science research Integration back into science research Design & develop SID & AWESOME Planning Communications Coordination Integration into university environment Alabama A&M D Partners Production Reporting Distribution Traffic Control Distribution Distribution D D General Public Interest in & awareness of Space Weather Teachers and classrooms – high school & community college D D 100 SIDs 10 AWESOME
Speed Bumps • Administrivia • Changes in teaching positions • Funding • Time • Management • Parts suppliers
Stanford Partners Philip Scherrer, Solar Observatories Group Umran Inan, Stanford EE Hao Thai, Solar Observatories Group Deborah Scherrer, Stanford Solar Center Students Morris Cohen, Stanford EE Justin Tan, Stanford EE Shannon Lee, Chabot Community College Sharad Khanal, Stanford Physics Scott Winegarden, Mid Penninsula High School (now at UC Irvine) Mitch Patenaude, Cal State Hayward Sam Penrose, Cal State Hayward Kenny Oslund, Castro Valley High (now at CalTech) Educators Ray Mitchell, Chief Engineer; Chabot Community College, Cal State Hayward William Clark, San Lorenzo High School Richard Styner, San Lorenzo High School Sean Fotrell, Castro Valley High School Tim Dave, Chabot Community College CISM Partners Roberta Johnson, NCAR Ramon Lopez, Florida Institute of Tech. Pat Reiff, Rice University Marius Schamschula, Alabama A&M Concept: Paul Mortfield Our Team
For more informationon Space Weather Monitors http://solar-center.stanford.edu/SID email@example.com