Download
marine life and adaptations to the marine environment n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Marine Life and Adaptations to the Marine Environment PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Marine Life and Adaptations to the Marine Environment

Marine Life and Adaptations to the Marine Environment

234 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Marine Life and Adaptations to the Marine Environment

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Marine Life and Adaptations to the Marine Environment

  2. Overview • More than 250,000 identified marine species • Most live in sunlit surface seawater

  3. Classification of living organisms • Three domains of Life • Archaea • Prokaryotic, includes “extremophile” bacteria • Bacteria • Prokaryotic, includes what used to be in Kingdom Monera • Eukarya • Eukaryotic cells • Includes Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals

  4. Domain Archaea • Bacteria - Prokaryotic cells • Cell wall differs from those bacteria in Domain Bacteria • Includes extremophile bacteria • Acidophiles • Halophiles • Thermophiles • Etc. • These bacteria are found to chemosynthesize in hydrothermal vents

  5. Domain Bacteria • Bacteria – prokaryotic cells • Cell wall made of peptidoglycan • Includes Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Vibrio, Pseudomonas, etc. • Only a very small % of bacteria are pathogenic • Bacteria are very important in things like nitrogen cycle, decomposition, food making, etc. • Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria

  6. Archaea and Bacteria • Most numerous organisms on Earth!! • Think about how much bacteria lives just on you • Viruses are thought to out number bacteria but if you are just talking about “live” organisms then bacteria are the most numerous • Simplest of organisms • But, can live in every thinkable habitat, even those once thought to be unsuitable to life, very successful organisms!!

  7. Now we will talk about Domain Eukarya • Includes protists, fungi, plants, animals

  8. Domain Eukarya • Protists: • Algae • Photosynthetic • Can be unicellular, colonial, or multicellular • Multicellular - “seaweed” – kelp, sargassum, sea lettuce • Unicellular – phytoplankton, produce majority of oxygen in atmosphere comes from our phytoplankton, can cause red tides (examples are dinoflagellates and diatoms) • Protozoans • Heterotrophic • Unicellular • Amoeba, paramecium

  9. Domain Eukarya • Fungi • Heterotrophic • Secrete enzymes and absorb nutrition • Since they are heterotrophic, they are more closely related to animals than to plants • Multicellular (mold) or unicellular (yeast)

  10. Domain Eukarya • Plants • Autotrophic, multicellular • Many plant species cannot tolerate saltwater • Very few species grow in/near ocean • Sea grasses • Mangroves • Dune plants

  11. Domain Eukarya • Animals • Heterotrophic, multicellular, have motility at some point in life cycle • Wide variety • From simplest of animals (sponges) to most complex (mammals)

  12. Viruses • Acellular entities • Are they “alive”??? – many scientists say no • Do not have the machinery for life processes, have to take over host cell • The ultimate “parasites” • Viruses very prevalent in the marine environment

  13. Taxonomic classification • Systemized classification of organisms • Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species • Fundamental unit • Population of genetically similar, interbreeding individuals

  14. With new molecular methods (comparing DNA sequence and amino acid sequences of certain proteins), traditional taxonomy is changing • Taxonomists are discovering new relationships between species • Molecular data gives a clearer picture of relatedness as opposed to the traditional ways of classifying organisms: • Morphology, embryology, behavior, habitat, etc.

  15. Let’s take a closer look at Plant and Animal taxonomy

  16. Kingdom Plantae • Nonvascular Plants – mosses, etc • Vascular Plants • Seedless Vascular Plants – ferns, etc • Seed Vascular Plants • Gymnosperms – “naked” seeds • Angiosperms – flowering plants (in the marine environment these include mangroves, sea grasses, etc.)

  17. Kingdom Animalia • Parazoa – no true embryonic tissues • Sponges • Eumetazoa – true embryonic tissues • 2 true tissues – radial symmetry; Cnidarians, Ctenophores • 3 embryonic tissues – bilateral symmetry; all other animals • Acoelomate – only flatworms • Coelomates: • Protostomes • Deuterostomes

  18. Radially Symmetrical Animals, 2 true embryonic tissues • Cnidarians • Class Anthozoa – sea anemones, corals • Hydrozoa – Hydra • Scyphozoa – “jellies” • Ctenophores – no stinging cells, complete gut unlike in the Cnidarians

  19. What are the embryonic tissue layers? • Tissue layers that form during development • Ectoderm • Mesoderm • Endoderm

  20. What is radial symmetry? • What is bilateral symmetry?

  21. What is an acoelomate? • What is a coelomate?

  22. Bilaterally symmetrical animals are divided into 2 groups • Protostomes – 1st blastopore that forms during development becomes the mouth • Includes Annelids, Arthropods, Molluscs • Deuterostomes – 1st blastopore that forms during development becomes the anus • Includes the Echinoderms, Chordates

  23. Bilaterally symmetrical animals • Platyhelminthes – flatworms • Protostomes • Annelids • Mollusks • Nematods • Arthropods • Deuterostomes • Echinoderms • Chordates

  24. Platyhelminthes – flatworms • Class Turbellaria – free-living flatworms • Class Trematoda – flukes • Class Cestoda - tapeworms http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/photos/marine-worms/#/marine-worms03-flatworm_18260_600x450.jpg

  25. Protostomes • Mullusca • Class Polyplacaphora - chitins • Class Gastropoda – snails, conchs • Class Bivalvia – oysers, scallops • Class Cephalopoda – squid, octopus

  26. Protostomes • Annelida • Class Oligochaeta – earthworms • Class Polychaeta – many marine species, sand worms, feather dusters • Class Hirudinea - leeches Marine feather duster worm http://www.aquariumdomain.com/viewMarineInvertSpecies.php?invert_marine_id=26

  27. Protostomes • Nematoda – round worms • Many of these are parasitic

  28. Protostomes • Arthropoda • Largest group of animals on the planet!!!! • Chelicerates – horseshoe crabs and arachnids • Crustaceans – marine and freshwater, crabs, lobster, shrimp, barnacles • Insects and relatives

  29. Limulus polyphemus Callinectes sapidus

  30. Deuterostomes • Echinodermata • Adults have pentahedral symmetry but larvae are bilaterally symmetrical • Class Ophiuroidea – brittle stars • Class Echinodea – sea urchins • Class Holothuroidea – sea cucumber • Class Crinodea – sea lillies Sea cucumber from IRL

  31. Deuterostomes • Chordata • Characteristics: dorsal hollow nerve cord, notochord, post-anal tail, pharyngeal gill slits • Subphylum Urochordata – tunicates • Larvae have bilateral symmetry, look like tadpole • Subphylum Cephalochordata – lancelets • Subphylum Vertebrata • Superclass Agnatha – jawless fishes • Superclass Gnathostoma – jaws • Class Chondrichthyes • Class Osteichthyes • Class Amphibia • Class Reptilia • Class Mammalia

  32. Vertebrates • Class Chondrichthyes • Sharks, rays

  33. Vertebrates • Class Osteichthyes • Bony fish, ray-finned fish • Great diversity in the ocean! • Very small to very large • Large tuna, grouper, sailfish • Deep sea fish • Flattened fish – flounder • Seahorses • Eels

  34. Vertebrates • Class Reptilia • Includes birds now!!! • Sea turtles, sea snakes, pelicans, penguins, osprey, sea gulls

  35. http://seaturtlesofindia.org/?page_id=12

  36. Vertebrates • Class Mammalia • What are the characteristics of mammals? • Carnivores: Sea otters, Polar bears, pinnepeds (walruses, seals, sea lions) • Sirenians: manatees • Cetacea • Odontocetes – toothed whales: dolphins, porpoises, sperm whale • Mysticetes: baleen whales: gray whale, right whale, blue whale (largest animal to roam the Earth)

  37. Classification in the marine environment by habitat and mobility • Plankton (floaters) • Nekton (swimmers) • Benthos (bottom dwellers)

  38. http://i.ehow.com/images/GlobalPhoto/Articles/2110315/icephytoplankton-main_Full.jpghttp://i.ehow.com/images/GlobalPhoto/Articles/2110315/icephytoplankton-main_Full.jpg Plankton • Most biomass on Earth consists of plankton • Phytoplankton • Microscopic algae, Autotrophic • Zooplankton • Heterotrophic • Protozoans, tiny animals, larvae of larger animals • Bacterioplankton • Virioplankton • Viruses that infect bacteria and eukaryotic cells

  39. Plankton • Holoplankton • Entire lives as plankton • Example is algae, protozoans, small microscopic animals • Meroplankton • Part of lives as plankton • Juvenile or larval stages in the plankton • Examples are lobsters, some fish species, etc. • Macroplankton • Large floaters such as jellyfish or Sargassum • Picoplankton • Very small floaters such as bacterioplankton

  40. Nekton • Independent swimmers • Most adult fish and squid • Marine reptiles • Marine mammals

  41. Benthos • Epifauna live on surface of sea floor • Infauna live buried in sediments • Nektobenthos swim or crawl through water above seafloor • Most abundant in shallower water

  42. Number of marine species • More land species than marine species • Ocean relatively uniform conditions • Therefore, less adaptation required, less speciation • Don’t get this fact confused with # of individual organisms • There are fewer different species in the ocean but greater # of individuals • Majority of life on Earth lives in the ocean!! • Diversity in the ocean is high, also – think about different types of fish (seahorses to sharks, for example) • Marine species overwhelmingly benthic rather than pelagic • Most of these will be in shallow coastal benthic areas where there is light and a lot of primary productivity

  43. Marine organisms have a lot of adaptations for living in the marine environment • Let’s take a look at some of these adaptations

  44. Adaptations of marine organisms • Physical support • Buoyancy • How to resist sinking • Different support structures in cold (fewer) rather than warm (more appendages) seawater • Smaller size http://www.solaster-mb.org/mb/images

  45. Adaptations to marine life • Oil in micro-organisms to increase buoyancy • Over-time, if these organisms die and sink to bottom • Can become offshore oil deposits Fish egg with oil droplet Fig. 12.9 http://www.rpgroup.caltech.edu/~natsirt/aph162/webpages/dylanandco/lab1/image

  46. Adaptations to marine life • Streamlining important for larger organisms • Less resistance to fluid flow • Flattened body • Tapering back end – fusiform http://www.wissenschaft-online.de/sixcms/media.php/591