Era 2 Review 600 – 1450 C.E.
Chapter 10 Inner and East Asia, 600-1200 • What is the importance of Inner and Central Asia as a region of interchange during the Tang period? • Tang: took over from Sui only in power for 34 years 581- 618; Tang kept many of their practices
1. What is the importance of Inner and Central Asia as a region of interchange during the Tang period? Cultural interchange: pottery figurines show horses and two-humped camels from Silk Road Weapons of Tang were part Chinese, part Inner Asia—the crossbow accompanied by Inner Asian horsemanship and the iron stirrup Clothing—pants from riding became fashionable Polo from the steppes, allowed women to compete Turkic instruments from Silk Road Grape wine from West Asia and tea, sugar, and spices from India Central Asia imported way more from China though-silk, porcelain (always a trade imbalance there…)
What is the importance of Inner and Central Asia as a region of interchange during the Tang period? Between 600-751 the Uighurs and Tibetans built large rival states in Inner Asia Based around Silk Road stopping points Mutually beneficial trade required cooperation rather than political disunity By mid-800s military decline and standoff Tang hit hardest because most centralized Nomads of the steppe survived longer In China, anger at neighbors fueled antiforeign feelings Caravan cities from overland trade were centers of Islam—religion and culture (art)
2. On what were new relationships among East Asian societies based after the fall of Tang? Song Empire; Jin Empire Competition 3 rival states, very diff. languages, diff. religions Competition led to advancement in seafaring techniques and military tech Song paid tribute to northern people
3. Why do Buddhism and Confucianism play different political roles in Tang and Song China? Tang Song Mahayana Buddhism dominated (Great Vehicle—common) Permitted local gods in religion; conversion more attractive Late Tang: Elites saw Buddhism as undermining to Confucianism, spoke against it; destruction of temples Confucian (as successors to Tang) Neo-Confucianism: reemphasized moral and social responsibility of the individual Buddhism persisted, but officially Confucianism was practiced Examination system of gov’t hiring
3. Why do Buddhism and Confucianism play different political roles in Tibet, Korea, and Japan? • Confucianism had best chance of spreading east—rice cultivation fit well • Spread with the Chinese writing system • Examination system did not spread • Elite in every area learned to read Chinese and Confucian classics • Japan: official reverence for Buddhism • During 8th century surpassed China in Buddhist studies • Tibet: (west) A Tang princess came to marry a Tibetan king and brought Buddhism, mixed with native religion and created a unique kind of Buddhism
4. What accounts for the scientific and economic advancements that contributed to the thriving urban life of Song China? Almost an industrial revolution in the 900s… Because of the network of exchange at the time, Chinese scholars put together vast knowledge of math, astronomy, measurement, seafaring, and weaponry Inventions of the Song: celestial clock, refined compass, the junk (oceangoing ship), iron production that created weapons of unprecedented strength, gunpowder, “flying money”– paper money and credit