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Canada's Role in the late Twentieth Century

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Canada's Role in the late Twentieth Century

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  1. Canada's Role in the late Twentieth Century Chapter 6

  2. GLOBALIZATION 6Canada's role in the late 20th century • Analyse the evolution of Canada's roles in the late twentieth century. • Analyse Canada's evolving relationship with the US in global issues. • Explore and analyse Canada's role in peacekeeping and peace making efforts around the globe. • Investigate and assess Canada's humanitarian roles since 1945( e.g. CID, NGO's UN organizations, refugees). • Compare the evolution of Canada's emerging relationships (e.g., the Commonwealth, La Francophonie, The OAS, Pacrim).

  3. Framing the Question • How did Canada balance its commitment to peace with its close alliance to the USA and its foreign policy during the Cold War? • How has Canada’s international identity been shaped by its role as peacemaker and peacekeeper? • How does Canada’s membership in international organizations help to foster an identity that is similar to, yet distinct from, its neighbour, the United States?

  4. THE COLD WAR BEGINS • Between USA and USSR, over control of Eastern Europe • Competing over power, political allies and economic superiority • USA is democratic and Capitalist • USSR is totalitarian and Communist • USSR occupies eastern Germany and other eastern European countries longer than the USA would like • The USA promises economic aid to countries who make the Soviet Russian leave

  5. THE COLD WAR BEGINS • One by one the countries that the Red Army (Soviet) occupy elect Communist governments… and ask the Soviet Army to stay for “security reasons” • American economic aid considered to be economic imperialism by the Soviet government of Josef Stalin • Countries that fall under Soviet influence after 1945 • Bulgaria, Albania, East Germany, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Hungary, Poland. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are absorbed by the Soviet Union

  6. CANADA AND THE COLD WAR • During WW2, Canada and US establish the Permanent Joint Board on Defence (PJBD) to coordinate the military defence of North America against Japanese and Nazi German invasion • Many reasons for close relationship after WW2 • Ideological (democracy, capitalism, anti-communist) • Military (defending N. America against Soviets) • Economic (US has world’s most powerful economy and Canada is the 2nd largest land mass)

  7. Defence Strategies • Canada joins North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) with USA, Britain, France, West Germany in 1949 • Formed in response to Soviet take-over of most of eastern Europe • Canada wanted NATO to be military and economic alliance • Instead, the USA used its influence (world superpower) to control the defence policies of its friends and allies

  8. Nuclear Deterrence • During 1950’s the USA and the USSR created more powerful nuclear weapons • US government adopts policy of “nuclear deterrence” to deal with international Communism • The US government states it will use tactical nuclear weapons against any Communist country that interferes in the affairs of other nations • This policy adopted by NATO in 1954

  9. Nuclear Deterrence • Canada agrees to help US with anti-Communist monitoring around world • Canada buys sophisticated missiles and aircraft from the US • Canada accepts US bases and nuclear weapons at Goose Bay NL and Comox BC • In return, US agrees to “Defence Production Sharing Agreement” to allow US military to buy from select Canadian companies

  10. Continental Defence • Canada and US are obsessed with defending North America from Soviet nuclear attack, especially over North Pole • 1957: three radar defence networks established in the Canadian arctic • DEW Line: Distant Early Warning was placed under control of new organization called NORAD • 1958, North American Air Defence Treaty

  11. Continental Defence • The US military took control of “joint” projects, for example, Canadians had to ask permission to enter DEW sites • Some say OK because Canada under protection of the American “nuclear umbrella” • Others complain that Canada has sold its sovereignty and independence to the US

  12. THE KOREAN WAR (1950-1953) • After WW2, the USSR occupies northern Korea, the USA occupies southern Korea • Over 5 years, Korea starts acting like two separate countries, the north is Communist and the south is capitalist • In 1950 northern Korea invades southern Korea • The United Nations approves and “American-led police action” to push the Communists back into northern Korea • See-saw battles for three years, Canada sends 25,000 soldiers; 300 KIA

  13. THE KOREAN WAR (1950-1953) • Canada’s foreign policy changes during the Korean War • For first time, Canadian soldiers fought under US command (instead of British) • Canada becoming more “American” than British • Canada begins purchasing American equipment and weapons (not British) • Canada’s international interests are more closely tied to the US instead of Britain

  14. THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS • Fidel Castro leads a socialist revolution on the island of Cuba • US vehemently opposed to the new Communist government in Cuba • US wants to impose a trade embargo on Cuba, but Canada refuses to take part • Canada maintains diplomatic relations, although US severs all official ties with the government of Cuba (closes embassy)

  15. THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS • In 1961 the US tries to overthrow the Cuban Communist government • The “Bay of Pigs Invasion” is a disaster for the Americans • President Fidel Castro asks the USSR for military assistance – the Soviet Union installs nuclear missile bases • US aerial surveillance (spy planes) finds the launchers, US President John F. Kennedy demands the missiles be removed ***IMMEDIATELY***

  16. THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS • JFK asks Canadian PM John Diefenbaker to put its NORAD forces on high alert in case USSR did not remove the missiles from Cuba • At first, Canada calls for United Nations mission to see if missiles are really nuclear • Canada waits three days before going to high alert • Diefenbaker’s responses angers the US gov’t • The US gov’t publicly calls into question the Canadian PM’s actions/lack of action

  17. THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS • In response to US criticism, Diefenbaker backs out of commitment made to NORAD and NATO for Canada to acquire nuclear warheads • Canadian public opinion divided • Some think that Diefenbaker is asserting Canadian independence in foreign policy • Other Canadians angry the PM Diefenbaker did not show enough support for US – Canada’s primary ally

  18. THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS • 1963: Federal election in Canada, Diefenbaker’s Conservatives lose in favour of Lester B. Pearson’s Liberal Party • PM Pearson initially opposed to acquiring nuclear weapons in Canada • PM Pearson changes policy and allows Canada to accept them when – Pearson is told that future of NORAD and NATO at stake because Canada reneged on the original agreement

  19. THE VIETNAM WAR • Vietnam, a former French colony in southeast Asia • Like Korea, split in two after WW2 – Communists control the north, capitalists control the south • Plans to reunite country after general elections in 1956, but it appears the Communists will win • The US tries to have the election postponed hoping that pro-American interests have more time to garner support/popularity • US sends in 800 military “advisors”

  20. THE VIETNAM WAR • Hostilities between North and South Vietnamese escalate, and the US launches a full-scale military invasion • By 1965, there are 500,000+ US soldiers in Vietnam • Canada officially neutral, but supplied weapons to US and aid to the gov’t of South Vietnam • 10,000+ Canadians volunteered to serve in US military during Vietnam • 32,000+ Americans fled to Canada to escape being conscripted (draft dodgers) • By 1975, between 3 million and 4 million Vietnamese men, women and children were killed • 58,000+ American service personnel killed or missing

  21. NUCLEAR ARMS REDUCTION • In 1968, Pierre Trudeau become PM • Wants Canada’s defence policy to be defined by its foreign policy • Trudeau wants to greatly reduce east-west tensions in Europe • Trudeau’s govt’ drastically cuts Canada’s NATO contribution and begins phasing out nuclear arsenal • Between 1970 and 1984 conventional weapons replace all nuclear weapons in Canada and on Canadian bases in Europe

  22. NUCLEAR ARMS REDUCTION • Although Canada’s gov’t committed to nuclear arms control, it was difficult for economic and alliance reasons: • Partnership with US in radar defence • Membership in NATO • Membership in NORAD • Canada is a major uranium producer • Canada exports nuclear equipment, such as the CANDU Nuclear Reactor

  23. THE END OF THE COLD WAR • The USSR goes through period of perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness) in mid-1980s • USSR loses control of countries in the Warsaw Pact (Poland, Hungary, East Germany, etc…) • Communism collapses, the USSR ceases to exist, new democracies emerge all over the old Warsaw Pact • The military focus in Canada’s foreign policy during the Cold War is replaced by renewed emphasis on trade and commerce

  24. TERRORISM AND THE WAR IN AFGHANISTAN • 9-11 draws Canada even closer into the American sphere of influence • NATO declares solidarity with US • US President George W. Bush declares a new war on terrorism, especially on terrorists hiding in totalitarian Iraq and Afghanistan • Canada deploys troops to Afghanistan • Most anticipate a support role only • Canadian troops, for first time since Korea, are in combat under American command

  25. TERRORISM AND THE WAR IN AFGHANISTAN • Terrorist attacks have significant impact on Can-Am relations, especially re: continental defence • Ottawa establishes “Committee on Public Security and Counter-Terrorism” to act like US’s “Office of Homeland Security” • A new era of Can-Am defence cooperation • Increased border surveillance • Tougher immigration policies • Tougher refugee policies

  26. TERRORISM AND THE WAR IN AFGHANISTAN • By 2002, closer cooperation between Canada and US a given, but no firm strategy or plan adopted • Some Canadians advocated a continental security perimeter creating effectively “Fortress North America” • Others feared that harmonizing security policies would sacrifice Canadian sovereignty

  27. CANADA’S HUMANITARIAN ROLESThe United Nations • Through the United Nations, Canada plays a significant humanitarian role • World Health Organization (WHO) • UN Int’l Children’s Emerg. Fund (UNICEF) • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) • Canada demonstrates that world peace is achieved by eliminating social and economic problems • Canada has contributed to social and economic development of 60+ countries

  28. The CIDA – Canadian Int’l Development Agency • Created by Federal Gov’t in 1968 to facilitate Canada’s foreign aid programs • CIDA’s primary purpose to coordinate governmental and non-governmental assistance through aid though: • Bilateral (direct gov’t to gov’t aid) • Multilateral (aid provided by non-governmental organizations, or NGO’s) • Humanitarian aid (emergency disaster relief) • Canada commits to spend 0.7% of Gross National Product (GNP) on foreign aid • Like most, Canada offers “tied aid” meaning that assistance is conditional upon purchase of Canadian products and services, such as wheat or energy

  29. CANADA’S ROLE AS PEACEKEEPER • Canada’s most important role in the post-WW2 era • Since 1947, over 100,000 military personnel have served in 45 UN peacekeeping missions • Many Canadians view peacekeeping as an important way to contribute to • international stability • Canadian independence on world stage

  30. The Suez Crisis (1956) • Perceived as Canada’s greatest role as international peacekeeper


  32. The Commonwealth

  33. La Francophonie

  34. Multicultural Ties

  35. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation

  36. Organization of American States

  37. North-South Relations

  38. Post WW2 Graphic Organizer THE COLD WAR Date? 1946 until 1991 Who? USA (leader of the democratic world) and USSR (leader of the Communist world) Why? Democracy vs. Communism So what? MAD – Mutually Assured Destruction by nuclear war THE YALTA CONFERENCE Date: 4-11 February 1945 Who? Winston Churchill (GB), Josef Stalin (USSR), Franklin Roosevelt (USA) Why? What will Europe look like after the Nazis are defeated So what? USSR allowed to have influence in eastern Europe POTSDAM CONFERENCE Date? 17 July – 2 August 1945 Who? GB, USSR, USA Why? How to punish Nazis and deal with rebuilding all of Europe, especially Germany So what? Germany remains divided, no clear guide for Europe GOUZENKO AFFAIR Date? September 1945 Who? RCMP and Igor Gouzenko Why? Soviet embassy worker defects to Canada, exposes spy ring in the West So what? USSR accused of trying to steal nuclear technology and secrets USSR DETONATES A-BOMB Date? 29 August 1949 Who? USSR (Project RDS-1) Why? Balance of power with USA So what? Nuclear arms race between USA and USSR, eventually Communist China CHINESE REVOLUTION Date? 1 October 1949 Who? Mao Zedong and the People’s Liberation Army Why? Chinese civil war (1946-52) So what? US supported Nationalists, “Red China” now hostile to American interests; a powerful potential Soviet ally KOREAN WAR Date? June 1950 – July 1953 Who? North Korean and Chinese Communists and the United Nations, led by the USA Why? Korean civil war, USA wants to stop spread of Communism in Asia, protect Japan So what? A cold war begins b/n USA and Communist China and North Korea DÉTENTE (USA & USSR) Date? 1971 – 1980 Who? USA (Nixon) and USSR (Brezhnev) Why? Hot war is a real possibility So what? Ends with 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Reagan calls USSR an “evil empire” COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM Date? 1989, 1990, 1991 Who? Average person in communist state protested communist system and totalitarianism, demand freedom Why? Lack of liberty, widespread poverty, time for change So what? After USSR collapses, US and China are the only superpowers CUBAN REVOLUTION & MISSILE CRISIS Date? Late October 1962 (2 wks) Who? USSR and Cuba vs. USA Why? Cuba felt threatened by USA, USA outraged by nukes in Cuba So what? USA and USSR begin talking, nukes out of Italy, Cuba and Turkey VIETNAM WAR Date? Nov. 1955 to April 1975 Who? USA vs. communist insurgents Why? Vietnamese civil war, anticolonialism So what? USA does not prevail in ‘Nam

  39. Post WW2 Graphic Organizer THE COLD WAR Date? _____________________ Who? _____________________ Why? _____________________ So what? __________________ THE YALTA CONFERENCE Date: 4-11 February 1945 Who? Winston Churchill (GB), Josef Stalin (USSR), Franklin Roosevelt (USA) Why? What will Europe look like after the Nazis are defeated So what? USSR allowed to have influence in eastern Europe POTSDAM CONFERENCE Date? _____________________ Who? _____________________ Why? _____________________ So what? __________________0 GOUZENKO AFFAIR Date? _____________________ Who? _____________________ Why? _____________________ So what? __________________ CHINESE REVOLUTION Date? _____________________ Who? _____________________ Why? _____________________ So what? __________________ USSR DETONATES A-BOMB Date? _____________________ Who? _____________________ Why? _____________________ So what? __________________ KOREAN WAR Date? _____________________ Who? _____________________ Why? _____________________ So what? __________________ DÉTENTE / S.A.L.T. Date? _____________________ Who? _____________________ Why? _____________________ So what? __________________ CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS Date? _____________________ Who? _____________________ Why? _____________________ So what? __________________ VIETNAM WAR Date? _____________________ Who? _____________________ Why? _____________________ So what? __________________ COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM Date? _____________________ Who? _____________________ Why? _____________________ So what? __________________