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Writing and Delivering an Effective Speech

Writing and Delivering an Effective Speech

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Writing and Delivering an Effective Speech

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  1. Writing and Delivering an Effective Speech

  2. We started the year by discussing speech basics—we built a foundation • Building confidence • Nonverbal messages • Then we learned how to build content and appeal to an audience—logic and argumentation • Now we will be discussing techniques to deliver that material to an audience using effective vocal techniques Building on a Foundation

  3. Think of it like a house—no matter how good the foundation there, it has to have the space that fits your needs, and then it has to look good—you repaint, spruce up the yard, etc. • The “looking good” is the organization, style & delivery aspect of a speech Building on a Foundation

  4. Organization

  5. Generally your speeches should all have three parts (just like the papers you write) • Beginning • Middle • End • You are expected to create polished and interesting introductions and conclusions! Parts of a Speech

  6. Consider your audience and message, and organize your material to suit your purpose • Always have a plan! Organizing Your Material

  7. Attention-getter • Questions, references, startling statements, quotes, stories • The Link • MAKE THE CONNECTIONS!! • The Thesis Statement • The Preview Statement Introductions

  8. This is where you consider your purpose and organize your material to match • Make this purposeful!! • Use transitions to tie ideas together throughout the speech • “Signpost” and use signal words for your audience so they know when you are transitioning ideas Body

  9. Summarize your material • Make a final impression • Appeal to action • Round it off • Generalize • Vision of the future Conclusion

  10. Style

  11. The words you choose to express your ideas play a large role in how the audience perceives you and how receptive they are to what you say • Good style choices make your speech memorable! (Well bad ones do too, but for the wrong reasons…) • This is involves planning as well to nail down the “word pictures” you are going to create for your audience. Why Style Matters

  12. Concrete vs Abstract words • Abstract words can cloud your message • They can be used, but must be accurately and clearly explained • In general, be as specific as possible • Denotation vs Connotation • Use words with clear denotations and think through the connotations they present both to you and to your audience Accuracy

  13. Say as much as you can in as few words as possible—remember, your audience doesn’t have words to look at! • Avoid redundancy • Use fairly simple sentences • The idea is to be as clear and direct as possible with what you want to say Economy

  14. Using figures of speech and sound devices can make your speech memorable • Figures of Speech • Metaphor, simile, allusion, personification, hyperbole, oxymoron, irony • Sound: • Alliteration, assonance, consonance • Parallel structure, repetition • “of the people, for the people, by the people • Makes your speech colorful, and can even increase understanding if done well Word Pictures and Sound Devices

  15. Jargon and slang—terms that not everyone would understand • Sexist language—or anything stereotyping • Shocking or obscene language or stories • Space fillers— “Um”, “like”, etc. Language to Avoid

  16. Delivery

  17. Manuscript • Memorized • Extemporaneous • Impromptu Types of Delivery

  18. Write it out word for word, then deliver from a lectern • Think politicians or newscasters. • Pros: not likely to make an error since it is all written out, and you likely have plenty of time to plan and prepare • Cons: can lose touch with the audience because you are concentrating on the paper, can lose place in the paper, and loss of eye contact GREATLY reduces your credibility Manuscript

  19. Tips • Should be large and easy to read. • Highlight key words • Typing is suggesting Manuscript

  20. Every word is committed to memory—no notes • Pros: many of the same as manuscript method—speech is well-planned and rehearsed, plus it is easier to make gestures and movements • Cons: can make you more tense rather than more relaxed—fear of forgetting—or may delivery without any feeling Memorized

  21. Tips • Memorize and practice in small chunks • Practice outloud • Be sure to concentrate on memorizing the beginning and end • Have a “safety net” Memorized

  22. Not written out word for word OR memorized, but outlined and planned out • Probably the best method because it gives you the freedom to react to your audience and “go with the flow”, while still having a plan to stick to • Very believable • Often used with notecards containing only transitions and key words/phrases Extemporaneous

  23. Pros: can be natural and be yourself while speaking, allowing yourself to pay attention to your audience and adjust to feedback • Cons: may forget something you wanted to say or flub a few lines Extemporaneous

  24. Tips • Control your notecards! • Practice in advance with your notecards so you are used to using them and holding them Extemporaneous

  25. Not rehearsed, spontaneous—usually short • This is the method you will probably use most often in life, and it can be the most scary • Pros: Allows you to be yourself and react to the audienceinstantly • Cons: Requires and ability to think on your feet—can lose track of what you are saying—or overuse “fillers” to kill dead time Impromptu

  26. Tips • Be prepared (you typically aren’t assigned a random topic to talk about in real life– you are more likely at a meeting in which you are supposed to know what is going on and asked to speak suddenly about something) • Be honest Impromptu

  27. Using Your Voice

  28. Your textbook reviews the vocal process—I won’t get into this anatomy right now, but you need to review it Vocal Process

  29. The speed at which we speak • People tend to speak faster than they think, plus they tend to speed up even more when they are nervous • If this is a problem for you, try to vary your pace. Take a deep breath, speak deliberately and with feeling • Can also be varied for effect in a speech—slowing down or speeding up to match content, purpose and audience Rate

  30. Notes you hit while speaking—the highs and lows • Think like a musical scale • Want to have a range of pitch while speaking—avoid being monotonous • NOT random—use pitch naturally and for emphasis Pitch

  31. Ithink that you are the best. • I think that you are the best. • I think that you are the best. • I think that you are the best. • I think that you are the best. • I think that you are the best. Pitch

  32. Must be loud enough to hear, first of all! If your audience has to work to hear you, they won’t. • Consider the physical surroundings and adjust volume accordingly • Can also use volume for emphasis Volume

  33. Pronunciation: saying all the of sound of a word correctly • Articulation: the crispness with which you say the syllables in your words • Jaw, lips, tongue • Do you say words clearly or mush them together? • Probably, Water, Swimming Articulation/Pronunciation

  34. “Whatayagonna do tanight?” • (What are you going to do tonight?) • “Didjasee’mdoot?” • (Did you see him do it?) • “Doyawanna talk tooer?” • (Do you want to talk to her?) Articulation/ Pronunciation

  35. Problems occur when people speak too fast, fail to open their mouths, or fail to use tongues to correctly pronounce words • Do your homework and know how names and tough words are pronounced! • For better or worse, people judge how smart you are based on how you say things Articulation/ Pronunciation

  36. Using Your Body

  37. Nonverbal communication and body language (which we learned in a previous chapter) communicate your attitude about your message • Very important! Using Your Body

  38. Walking in a purposeful manner from one spot to another • Should be natural and rhythmic to match your words • Provides an eye relief to your audience and can signal moving from one part of a speech to the next • Can be as simple as a single step (or 3 or 5, depending on space) Platform Movement

  39. Don’ts • Pace back and forth as if you are a duck in a shooting gallery. • Wander, or take strolls from spot to spot with no purpose. • Avoid movement because you are afraid you will look silly. Platform Movement

  40. Dos • When you are moving from one part of your speech to the next • When you are changing emotional appeal • When it feels appropriate (this takes practice and feeling comfortable) • Stay open to the audience—don’t turn away • Move toward the audience, or a part of it, or a specific person (just don’t get too close) • Plan your movements, just like your words Platform Movement

  41. Using body parts to express or emphasize ideas • “Talking with your hands” • Using arms, hands, shoulders, head • Want gesture to be natural and fit what you are saying • You don’t have to be constantly moving—it is ok to be at rest • Tip: hold notecards in just one hand to allow for movement of hands Gestures

  42. 1. Learn the “Gesture Zone” • Box from waist to shoulders • 2. Learn to “Lift and Lay” • Pick up and put down your hands • 3. Practice the “String” Idea • Your body works together, like a string is tying it together Gestures

  43. Using Your Face

  44. More than all other nonverbals, your face can determine believability • If your face doesn’t sell it, your audience doesn’t buy it Using Your Face

  45. Look at people and give them meaningful contact • NOT artificial, “top of the heads” eye contact • PEOPLE, not THINGS • Look specific people in the eyes for several seconds • Just a sentence or two, and make it random around the room • Don’t forget the far corners/sides Eyes

  46. The biggest reason for this is to watch for audience feedback and make adjustments • Do you see people straining to hear? • Do you see people who look confused? Audience Feedback

  47. Putting It Together

  48. All of this is what makes a speech dynamic and engaging for the audience • It captures their attention and makes the message of the speech more memorable • Good speakers put it all together and make it look harmonious and natural • Can make it look easy, even when it’s not • It only comes with practice!! Putting it Together