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Psychology Intro and Ch 1

Psychology Intro and Ch 1

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Psychology Intro and Ch 1

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  1. PsychologyIntro and Ch 1 Times New Roman

  2. Welcome! Before the Bell 1/22: • Find your seat in seating chart folder on table by the front door. • Type 1: Write down two things that are true about you and one thing that is a lie. Really try to make these as difficult as possible so even friends would have a hard time choosing which is the lie. Type1 • Objectives: • To introduce one another. • To describe the course • 2 truths and a lie

  3. Understanding Psychology Muller-Lyer illusion Which line is longer? We assume that people are hard wired to misperceive the length, but that is not necessarily true. We cannot assume just because we behave a certain way all people behave that way. Behavior must be studied objectively and scientifically. Free Template from

  4. I. Psychology? A. What is it? defined: scientific study of behavior. 1. What’s behavior? It is any action that people can observe or measure. 2. Overt/Covert behaviors: a.OVERT obvious (easily seen or identified) b. COVERT–not easily seen ( hidden covered or not directly observable. B. What are the GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY? 1. To observe and describe behavior and mental process to better understand them. 2. To predict and control behavior. Free Template from

  5. Before the Bell • Type 2: What is the goals of psychology? In addition write down the four observations and descriptions of people you made yesterday based on overt/covert behavior.

  6. What is Multiple Intelligences? • Free Template from

  7. II. Psychology as a Science A. It’s a social science 1. (history, anthropology, economics, political science and sociology) deal with the structure of human society and how individuals interact with those who make up society. B. Research 1. Two methods used primarily a. surveys – collecting data that asks people questions in a particular group. b. Experimentation – involves humans or animals Our class survey

  8. II. Psychology as a Science C. Psychological Theories 1. theory is a statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and why they happen the way the do. 2. Psychological theories are based on principles. 3. Principle is a basic truth or law…i.e. “if you study more you will get better grades.” (Basic Truths WS)

  9. After I take attendance…get up and find someone with the same color shirt…what did you think of the test on racism we started watching? How comfortable do you feel talking about racism? Free Template from

  10. Psychological Testing Research 1. Need to conduct research so they can collect data. 2. Research methodology – scientific procedures, racial bias Free Template from

  11. B. Experimental Research: The Study of Cause and Effect 1. The Theory – most experimental research is generated by a theory…it is an unrelated set of concepts that explains a body of data and can be used to predict results of future experiments. - not a guess – explanations of behavior developed after extensive research and observations. Video games in life

  12. Happy Tuesday • At your table discuss the Milgram experiment on authority and decide if you agree or disagree with his hypothesis. Friday’s Schedule 1st Hour 2nd Hour 3rd Hour 5th Hour 4th Hour- LUNCH 6th hour Assembly Free Template from

  13. 2. The Hypothesis a. possible explanation for a behavior being studied that is expressed as a prediction or a statement of cause and effect. Stanley Milgram – Obedience to Authority Free Template from

  14. 3. Independent and Dependent Variables a. Independent variable – factor that is selected and manipulated by the experimenter and is totally independent of anything the subject does In Miligram the IV the manipulated factors – proximity of the learning, whether or not experimenter was present, gender, and others = to determine their effect on obedience – these are independent variables. Free Template from

  15. 3. Independent and Dependent Variables a. Dependent variable – measureable behavior exhibited by the participant. In Miligram the IV the highest level of shock administered by participant. . Free Template from

  16. 4. Control Condition – part of an experiment in which participants are treated identically to participants in the experimental condition except that the independent variable is not applied to them. Free Template from

  17. 5. Experimental Condition– part of an experiment in which the independent variable is applied to the participants. Free Template from

  18. 6. Placebo– substance that would normally produce no physiological effect that is used as a control technique, usually in drug research. 7. Placebo effect - a change in participants’ behavior brought about because they believe thy have received a drug that elicits a change. Free Template from

  19. 8. Experiment Bias – tendency of experimenters to influence the results of research in the expected direction. 9. Double blind study – experiment in which neither the participant nor the experiment knows which treatment is being given to the participant . Free Template from

  20. 10. Sample –a selected group of participants that is representative of a larger population. 11.Population – the total of all possible cases from which a sample is selected. 12. Sample Bias – the tendency for the sample of participants in a research study to be atypical of a larger population.

  21. C. Nonexperimental research Techniques 1. Naturalistic Observation – systematically record the behavior of participants in their natural state or habitat. 2. Surveys – nonexperimental research that sample behaviors and attitudes of a population. 3. Case-study – in depth study of a single research subject.

  22. III. What do Psychologist Do? A. There are a variety of fields that involve psychology. 1. Clinical Psychology – (largest group) what most people think of when they think of psychologist. (specialty areas: child mental health, adult mental health, learning disabilities, geriatrics, and general health. a. trained to evaluate mental health, help people overcome problems and adjust to demands in their lives. b. Work environment : hospitals, prisons, university clinics, private practice. Note: Psychiatrist - a medical doctor who specializes in the treatment of psychological problems and who can prescribe medication for clients.

  23. Happy Wednesday 1/30New Seats Type 2 what is the difference between a dependent and an independent variable? Type 1: Brainstorm as many different jobs you know that are related to psychology. Free Template from

  24. III. What do Psychologist Do? A. There are a variety of fields that involve psychology. 2. Counseling Psychology a. uses interviews and test to determine problems. b. generally treat persons with adjustment problems not serious psychological disorders. (decision about career, hard time making friends, conflict resolution) 3. School Psychology - Peer and family issues, learning challenges, observe in classroom, recommends placement in programs. 4. Educational Psychology a. Focus on course planning and instructional methods for an entire school rather than a student.

  25. 5. Developmental Psychology a. changes that occur in a person’s life (physical, emotional, cognitive, social) b. special interest in adolescence 6. Personality Psychology a. identify human characteristics or traits and study their developments. b. special interest in: anxiety, aggression, and gender roles.

  26. 7. Experimental Psychology 1. conduct experimental research 2. explore biological and psychological reasons for cognitive behavior. (biological psychologist ) combine the bio and the psychological relationships 3. BASIC RESEARCH – has no immediate application and is done for it’s own sake (often their findings are used by other specialists 4. Applied research – conducted to answer specific real- world questions about behavior (done in almost all psychological disciplines)

  27. 8. Applied fields of psychology: a. Industrial and Organizational Psychology (how businesses and org. work) b. Human Factors Psychology (related to above) best ways to design products for people to use c. Community Psychology - create social systems that promote individual well-being (mental health centers, hospital programs, school based programs) d. Forensic Psychology – work within cjs; select police officers, job stress, how to handle dangerous situations, e. Health Psychology – health care professionals f. Rehabilitation Psychology – disabled individuals g. Cross-Cultural Psychology – mental process under different cultural conditions.

  28. Welcome! Before the Bell: • After attendance move with your partner. • You’ll have ½ to prep for presentation. • Objectives: • List the different fields of psychology. • Describe the advantages of conduction an experiment to study a research question.

  29. Before the Bell • Objectives: • To finish presenting types of jobs in psychology. • To begin research the schools of psychological thought.

  30. Before the Bell 9/12: • Type 1: What three things are you worried about as you anticipate this project today? • Objectives: • To research theories of psychology

  31. Write these Down • Structuralism • Functionalism • Psychoanalytic Theory • Gestalt Psychology • Behaviorists • Humanistic Psychology • Cognitive Psychology • Psychobiology • Eclectic View Free Template from

  32. Write these Down • Structuralism • Functionalism • Psychoanalytic Theory • Gestalt Psychology • Behaviorists • Humanistic Psychology • Cognitive Psychology • Psychobiology • Eclectic View Free Template from

  33. As a Group/individual • Research your psychology school of thought. You can use any resources you want. • We are going to compare/contrast the different schools of thought. Free Template from

  34. Before the Bell 9/13: • Type 2: Explain your school or theory of psychology in three sentences. • Objectives: • To research theories of psychology

  35. Before the Bell 9/14: • Get your posters. • Objectives: • To jigsaw our theories of psychology. • Structuralism • Functionalism • Psychoanalytic Theory • Gestalt Psychology • Behaviorists • Humanistic Psychology • Cognitive Psychology • Psychobiology • Eclectic View

  36. Before the Bell 9/17: • Get your posters. • Objectives: • To jigsaw our theories of psychology. • Structuralism • Functionalism • Psychoanalytic Theory • Gestalt Psychology • Behaviorists • Humanistic Psychology • Cognitive Psychology • Psychobiology • Eclectic View

  37. FCAs on Poster • Use less than 10 words on the poster (30 points) other than listing name, founder, and critics • Represent at least three ideas behind the psychological school in picture or illustrations/diagrams. (50) • Is large enough to read across the room and is with no misspelled words (20) Free Template from

  38. Quiz • Which school used the phrase “stream of consciousness”? • Which school focused on objective sensations and subjective feelings? • Which school was considered “talk therapy” and had three separate personalities? • Which man/school said behavior must be measurable and observable to be psychology? • This man/school used reinforcement over and over again? • This school said the brain looks to make things into whole pictures. • Which school or thought is used the most in psychology today? Free Template from

  39. Pioneers in Psychology (the scientific revolution lead to the birth of modern psychology in the 1800s) A. Wilhelm Wundt – Structuralism(1832-1920) 1. Structuralists concerned with discovering the basic elements of consciousness. 2. Objective sensations and subjective feelings. a. objective sensations – assumed to accurately reflect the outside world. b. subjective feelings – thought to include emotional responses and mental images. 3. Thought the mind functioned by combining the two. 4. Relied on introspection 5. What are the elements of the psychological process?

  40. Pioneers in Psychology B. William James and Functionalism 1. Experiences is a continuous “stream of consciousness” 2. Focused on the relationships between the experience and behavior 3. The Principles of Psychology 1890 (first modern psychology book) 4. Functionalism - concerned with how mental process help organism adapt to their environment 5. Relied on behavioral observation in the lab and introspection 6. What are the functions of the psychological process? 7. Adaptive behavior patterns are learned and maintained – because they are successful.

  41. Happy Hump Day Before the Bell 9/19 • Get out your notes • Review at your table the schools we’ve looked at • Objectives: • To discuss schools of thought on Psychology

  42. Pioneers in Psychology C. Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis(1856-1939) 1. The importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts in determining and understanding human behavior. 2. Theory became part of pop culture. (ie: interpret slip of the tongue or dreams?) 3. While structuralists and functionalists did most of their research in the lab, Freud did his with patients. 4. Talking cure – talk through your problems. 5. Believed unconscious process (sexual and aggressive urges) more important than conscious experience 6. Psychodynamic thinking - assumed most of what exists in a persons’ mind is unconscious and has conflict impulses, urges and wishes. 7. Psychoanalytic theory – used hypnosis, dream analysis, and fee association to revel unconscious thoughts.

  43. Pioneers in Psychology D. John B. Watson and Behaviorism (1878-1958) 1. Agreed with functionalism's focus on importance of learning, but he believed that it was unscientific to study a construct like consciousness…believed only an individual can know that. 2. Stressed if it was to be a science must focus on observable and measurable behavior. 3. Regardless of who we think we really are inside, we can be totally conditioned by external events. Our belief in individual choice is just an illusion.

  44. Pioneers in Psychology F. B.F. Skinner and Reinforcement (1904-1990) 1. added to the behaviorist tradition by introduction the concept of reinforcement. 2. Animals is rewarded he will do it again. 3. Thought it was dumb to try to understand the inner person believed we are the external causes of behavior . 4.“Thinking is behaving” 5. “The mistake is an allocating the behavior to the mind.”

  45. Pioneers in Psychology G. The Gestalt School(Gestalt Psychology) 1. Developed as an alternative to behaviorism and structuralism. 2. German psychologists Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Kholer felt that behaviorism was only concerned with treating a specific problem outside of this larger context. 3. Formed their school. Gestalt (shape or form) is based on the idea that our perceptions of objects are more than sums of their parts. 4. Reject the structurilaists idea that experience can be broken down into parts or elements. 5. Principals of Gestalt: a. similarity – objects look similar, people tend to recognize a pattern and perceive them as a united whole. b. closure – people fill in the missing information when enough of the shape of an object is indicated.

  46. Pioneers in Psychology G. The Gestalt School (Gestalt Psychology) 6. Reject the behaviorist notion that psychologist should only concentrate on observable behavior. 7. Believe that learning is a active and purposeful. 8. Demonstrated that much learning (problem solving( is accomplished by insight.

  47. Pioneers in Psychology H. Psychology Today: Eclectic View 1. Most modern psychologists talk about the eight basic “perspectives” that influence the topics psychologists study, how they conduct their research, and what information they consider important. (different than your book) 2. Biological, Evolutionary, cognitive, humanistic, psychoanalytic, learning, sociocultural, biopsychosocial. 3. Most psychologist today recognize the value of each orientation and believe that no one view has all the answers. 4. Most use an eclectic approach – using different perspectives as they suite the situation at hand.

  48. V. Cultural Psychology A. What is it? 1. Study influence of culture and the practice on people’s behavior to determine which behaviors are universal to all human beings and which are specific to individual cultures. B. What is Culture? 1. Shared way of life of a group of people. 2. Includes: ideals, values, and assumptions about life that guide behaviors. Free Template from