Download
dna and transcription tutorial n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
DNA and Transcription Tutorial PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
DNA and Transcription Tutorial

DNA and Transcription Tutorial

96 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

DNA and Transcription Tutorial

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. DNA and Transcription Tutorial Start from Beginning Transcription Predicting Transcription Review Questions Place your keyboard aside. Only use the mouse.

  2. Genes and DNA DNA can be divided into segments called genes. It is estimated that human DNA is composed of ~25,000 genes among its 46 total chromosomes. Quick Review. Proteins are made from smaller units called _____. Correct Monosaccharides make up complex sugars monosaccharides Amino acids Fatty acids make up lipids Fatty acids nucleotides Nucleotides make up nucleic acids

  3. back Genes Genes (small sections of DNA) are blueprints to make proteins for use throughout the body. Genes are found inside the nucleus of cells, but proteins are created outside of the nucleus. Quick review. Which organelle creates proteins? Mitochondria creates ATP energy Chloroplasts creates sugars mitochondria chloroplast Lysosomes break down food and pathogens lysosome ribosome Correct

  4. back Meet Melissa Melissa is an architect and has designed a new high-rise apartment complex.

  5. back Meet Melissa Melissa is an architect and has designed a new high-rise apartment complex. The construction blueprint holds the information needed to create the high-rise apartment complex.

  6. back Meet Melissa Melissa is an architect and has designed a new high-rise apartment complex. The construction blueprint holds the information needed to create the high-rise apartment complex. A gene is like the construction blueprints. The gene holds the information needed to make a protein.

  7. back Meet Melissa Melissa is an architect and has designed a new high-rise apartment complex. The construction blueprint holds the information needed to create the high-rise apartment complex. A gene is like the construction blueprints. The gene holds the information needed to make a protein. Quick Review. A gene is a small section of? Proteins are created from DNA codes DNA Proteins RNA Ribosomes Correct Ribosomes make proteins RNA is created from DNA. Stay tuned.

  8. back Transcription The DNA undergoes a process called transcription. Transcription is the process where the DNA code of a gene is used to make a molecule called messenger RNA (mRNA). Examine the picture. The red letters are DNA nucleotides. The green letters are mRNA being created. Notice how mRNA nucleotides are attaching to the DNA sequence. Quick review: Where is DNA stored? Correct Vacuole Nucleus Cytoplasm Vesicle Vacuole stores water and waste Cytoplasm contains many organelles, but not the DNA Vesicles usually transport proteins

  9. back Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. T A C A G G T A G C C T T A Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  10. back Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. T A C A G G T RNA Polymerase A G C C T T A Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  11. back Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. T A C A G G T RNA Polymerase G C C T T A A Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  12. back Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. T A C A G G T RNA Polymerase G C C T A A T Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  13. back Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. T A C A G G T RNA Polymerase C C T A A G T Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  14. back Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. T A C A G G T RNA Polymerase C C A A G T T Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  15. back Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. T A C A G G T RNA Polymerase C A A G C T T Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  16. back Transcription (continued) Remember that transcription will make mRNA. Here’s how. An enzyme called RNA Polymerase breaks apart the bonds that holds the 2 strands of DNA nucleotides together. One by one, the RNA polymerase moves down the DNA chain. T A C A G G T RNA Polymerase A A G C C T T Key Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

  17. back Transcription (continued) Now that the DNA has been separated, free-floating mRNA nucleotides bond to the now open DNA nucleotides. T A C A G G T RNA Polymerase A G C C T T A

  18. back Transcription Rules Now that the DNA has been separated, free-floating mRNA nucleotides bond to the now open DNA nucleotides. Before performing transcription, remember the table below.

  19. back Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which mRNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T A C A G G T A A U Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again Click one C G A G C C T T A

  20. back Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T A C A G G T A U A U Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again Click one C G A G C C T T A

  21. back Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T A C A G G T A U G A U Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again Click one C G A G C C T T A

  22. back Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T A C A G G T A U G U A U Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again Click one C G A G C C T T A

  23. back Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T A C A G G T A U G U C A U Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again Click one C G A G C C T T A

  24. back Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T A C A G G T A U G U C C A U Click one C G Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again A G C C T T A

  25. back Predicting Transcription Use the transcription table to predict which RNA nucleotide will match the DNA nucleotide. T A C A G G T A U G U C C A A U Click one C G Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again A G C C T T A

  26. back Predicting Transcription Now that the mRNA is complete, it will detach from the DNA… exit the nucleus… and then hook up with a ribosome. T A C A G G T A U G U C C A A G C C T T A

  27. back Predicting Transcription Now that the mRNA is complete, it will detach from the DNA… Exit the nucleus… And then hook up with a ribosome. T A C A G G T A U G U C C A A G C C T T A

  28. back Fate of the DNA? Once the mRNA breaks away, the DNA will recombine. T A C A G G T A G C C T T A

  29. back Fate of the DNA? Once the mRNA breaks away, the DNA will recombine. T A C A G G T A G C C T T A

  30. back The final stage. Remember Melissa? Her blueprint for the apartment complex needs to be copied and then taken to the construction site. In this analogy, Melissa would fax the blueprints over to the construction site. The fax would be the mRNA. The construction site is the ribosome. Now that a copy of the blueprint has arrived, the construction team can begin to build the apartment complex. In a cell, now that the mRNA has arrived, the ribosome has the instructions to begin to make a protein.

  31. back The final stage. mRNA makes a copy of the DNA… the mRNA exits the nucleus… the mRNA links up with a ribosome. A U G U C C A ribosome Once at the ribosome, the process called translation will begin. Translation is the process where a ribosome builds a protein. The details of translation will be discussed another day. For now, let’s review.

  32. back Final Review #1 What will eventually be created by the DNA code of a gene? ribosome protein nucleolus Correct Ribosomes will be used to make proteins The nucleolus makes ribosomes

  33. back Final Review #2 RNA polymerase separates DNA at the start of which process? We will discuss translation another day transcription translation replication Correct DNA helicase separates DNA during replication

  34. back Final Review #3 RNA polymerase is a type of which organic molecule? Which chemicals end with ASE? Correct Nucleic Acid Carbohydrate Lipid Proteins/enzyme Which chemicals end with ASE? Which chemicals end with ASE?

  35. back Final Review #4 Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again Remember: DNA “A” with RNA “U” DNA “T” with RNA “A” DNA “C” with RNA “G” DNA “G” with RNA “C” Try Again Which shows the process of transcription done properly? Key Black = DNA Red = mRNA Correct

  36. back Final Review #5 After exiting the nucleus, where will the finished mRNA travel? Mitochondria makes ATP energy. mRNA is not needed for this. The nucleolus makes ribosomes. mRNA is not needed for this. mitochondria ribosome nucleolus Correct

  37. back Final Review #6 Once arriving at the ribosome, which process will begin next? Transcription already happened to make the mRNA that has arrived at the ribosome. Replication is not performed while making a protein. Correct Replication Transcription Translation

  38. back Final Review #7 Click on the RNA letter that is not matched properly to the DNA letters. Black = DNA Red = mRNA No. U joins with A. No. G joins with C. No. G joins with C. No. C joins with G. No. U joins with A. No. G joins with C. Correct No. C joins with G. No. G joins with C. No. A joins with T. No. A joins with T.

  39. back Final Review #8 Genes are small segments of _____. No. Try again. No. Try again. Correct Proteins mRNA DNA

  40. I hope this tutorial was helpful. Turn in your handout. Feel free to start over if you would like to do some review.