Romanesque 1000 -1200 Eastern Europe
Historical Context-Europe-1000-1100 • Orthodox Christianity (Byzantine) converts a largely pagan Russia (remember: Constantinople modern day Istanbul) • Further divided long standing rivalry between Roman (ie Roman Catholic- centered in Rome), and Orthodox (Byzantine) • The Pope also increases his authority over central and eastern Europe • They eventually split in 1054- Orthodoxy in the decline and has an exposed frontier with Islam - Roman Catholicism would expand and grow • Growth of the cult of the saints and the habit of pilgrimage that was growing around their relics • The church grew more wealthy, and new buildings appeared along pilgrimage roads
We can see the similarities of the Byzantine, Greek Orthodox and Russian church architecture and how they differ from the castle and tower churches of Medieval Europe
Romanesque Architecture • “Romanesque” is the first international style since the Roman Empire 1000-1200 • Romanesque architecture is massive, low, and solid-looking • Competition among cities for the largest churches, which continues in the Gothic period via a “quest for height.” • Religious in theme and designed to evoke wonder and powerful response from the viewer
Art and architecture were used to demonstrate the churches powerful role as political, religious and cultural leader of the West • Masonry (stone) the preferred medium. Craft of concrete essentially lost in this period. • Rejection of wooden structures or structural elements. • East end of church the focus for liturgical services. West end for the entrance to church. • Church portals as “billboards” for scripture or elements of faith.
Cruciform plans. Nave and transept at right angles to one another. Church as a metaphor for heaven. Crossings (where the nave and transept crossed) where often topped with towers, or domes, or laterns Ambulatories , or walkways, were built around the apse to allow for large processions needed to view the relics Columns separate the nave from the side aisles-create strong feeling of rhythm Interior space could not get great height because of problems of weight and thrust windows were small so not to weaken walls Pilgrimage church Stè Sernim Toulouse France
Towers on side of entrance Abbey Church Jumieges France Durham Cathedral Worms Cathedral
Roofs replace by masonry barrel vaults • Groin vaults were often used to stabilize naves Ribbed groin vaults of Durham Cathedral, England began 1093
Rounded arches were used throughout including over windows and niches that contained sculpture
These heavy structures spanned large naves and created a lot of tremendous outward pressure, requiring massive exterior buttresses and thick walls for support. • Buttresses: a massive support built against a wall to receive the lateral thrust (pressure) exerted by the vault, roof or arch.
Another important feature of Romanesque architecture was the use of a separate bell tower, or campanile, that was built beside the main church. Made up of a cathedral, the baptistery, and the campanile ( or bell tower-leaning tower) White marble with horizontal band of green marble Tower will eventually fall over as it tilts more each year Cathedral- latin cross plan- apse at each end of the transept and a pointed dome over the center crossing Façade tiers of superimposed arches Pisa and its Leaning Tower
CASTLES • Found in Germany, France, England, Italy and Spain • Marksburg Castle (Germany) typical for 12th century • Stands on a cliff 495 ft above the Rhine river • Main tower reaches 130 ft more into the air • Resembles churches
ROMANESQUE SCULPTURE: Associated with church • Large in scale, attached to architecture • mostly on capitals of columns, portals of doors, or niches • Expressive and placed to evoke an emotional response from the viewer
tympanum-arched area above the doorway lintel and the arch- used for bas relief sculpture • Mission of the Apostles, Sainte-Madeline in Vezelay- • Christ sending his disciples to teach out into the world • Appropriate for many Crusades left from here • Rays of holy spirit pouring down on the apostles (they all have their copies of the Gospels • Lintel had grotesque figures the heathen (infidels) dog-headed, pig like, dwarf, also the blind and lame all awaiting conversion for salvation • Also contains zodiac signs
The Bayeux Tapestry is preserved and displayed in Bayeux, in Normandy, France. Nothing is known for certain about the tapestry’s origins. • Some historians argue that it was embroidered in Kent, England. • It is a very long and narrow hanging on which are embroidered figures and inscriptions comprising a representation of the conquest of England". • The Bayeux Tapestry was probably commissioned in the 1070s • It is over 70 metres long and although it is called a tapestry it is in fact an embroidery, stitched not woven in woollen yarns on linen..