UNIT 5, Part 1 Acts of Courage Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue
Unit 5, Part 1 What Makes a Hero? MAIN MENU Acts of Courage(pages 1020–1034) Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.
SELECTION MENU Selection Menu (pages 1020–1023) Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read
BEFORE YOU READ Preview the Article Before you read the article, think about the following questions: • What answers can you give to the question in the title of the article? • From skimming the first paragraph, what can you predict about the content of the article?
BEFORE YOU READ Set a Purpose for Reading Read to discover contrasting ideas about heroes.
BEFORE YOU READ Clarifying Meaning When you clarify the meaning of a text, you work to unlock the meaning of each section or paragraph. To clarify meaning, answer the questions on the following slide.
BEFORE YOU READ Clarifying Meaning • What does this section mean? Why might the writer have chosen to include this? • How does this information relate to the main idea and other ideas in the text?
BEFORE YOU READ Clarifying Meaning Create a chart similar to the one shown and answer the questions to help you clarify meaning as you read.
READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage As you read, keep the following questions in mind.How do you define heroism? Who do you see as a hero? Answer:Answers will vary.
READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Clarifying Meaning Clarifying meaning while you read is important because authors often build ideas on one another. If you don’t clear up a confusing passage, you may not understand main ideas or information that comes later.
READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Clarifying Meaning If you don’t understand a particular passage, take the following steps: • Reread the section more slowly. • Look up words you don’t know in a dictionary. • Ask questions about what you don’t understand.
READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Photograph Look at the photograph on page 1021. How does this photo illustrate both public and private acts of heroism? Answer: You may see the soldier fighting a public war but also caring for the baby in a very private and intimate way.
READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Effective readers interpret what they read based on their understanding of the world. Ripley offers many categories of “hero” in her essay, which was originally published in 2003.Using what you know about today’s society, what is useful about a discussion of heroism?
READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Answer: Given that the author wrote the article after September 11, 2001, she may be exploring the issue in the context of that event. Or given that so many people are considered heroes for fairly nonheroic behavior, perhaps the author is attempting to redefine the term.
READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Photograph Look at the photograph on page 1022. What current leaders do you see as heroes and why? Answer: Answers will vary.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Respond • Did your ideas about what makes a hero change after you read the article? Explain. Answer:You should explain your opinions and ideas about heroism.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret • (a) Why did Xavier Emmanuelli, cofounder of Doctors Without Borders, think that his colleague, Daniel Pavard, was a hero? (b) How does this challenge the traditional definition of a hero?
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) Because he quietly helped a dying bomb victim while no one was around to observe him (b) Most people identified as heroes are in the public eye.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 3. (a) According to Oxford University philosopher Roger Crisp, how do people in the United States define heroes? (b) Do you agree with him? Why or why not?
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer:(a) People in the United States define heroes as “rugged individualists.” (b) Some may say that traditional heroes in the United States are political leaders, soldiers, or entrepreneurs, while others may see Crisp’s definition as a generalization.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret • (a) According to the writer, what are two qualities that a hero must have? (b) What do you think some other qualities of a hero might be?
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer:(a) A hero must be both an idealistic dreamer and a realist. (b) Selflessness, emotional and physical strength, and humanity
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate • The article cites German playwright Bertolt Brecht, who once said “Unhappy the land that needs heroes.” What do you think this means? Do you agree? Explain.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer:A land that “needs heroes” may not be providing for its citizens— and is therefore an unhappy place—or that people seek out heroes regardless of their country’s conditions.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate • (a) How does the writer conclude the article? (b) Do you think it is an effective conclusion? Why or why not? Answer:(a) With a quote from novelist Jean-Christophe Rufin (b) The quote provides sense of closure-that circumstances make heroes. You; however, may want a definitive statement.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate • What do you think is the main idea of the article? Support your ideas with evidence from the article. Answer:There are many kinds of heroes and our definition of heroism has changed over time.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Acts of Courage • Compare and contrast the heroes of Sir Thomas Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur and those described in this TIME article.
AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Acts of Courage Answer:Sir Launcelot acted with honor and virtue with women and his allies; however, he was also a public figure and a warrior. Most of the heroes in Ripley’s article save lives rather than take them, as Launcelot does.
SELECTION MENU Selection Menu (pages 1024–1030) Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read
BEFORE YOU READ Meet D.T. Niane and the Storytellers Click the picture to learn about the author.
BEFORE YOU READ Connecting to the Legend The Sundiata tells the story of a great leader, his followers, and their larger-than-life deeds. Before you read this passage, ask yourself the questions on the next slide.
BEFORE YOU READ Connecting to the Legend • What helps you gain the extra confidence and energy you need to perform well in events such as a crucial game or an exam? • Why do people enjoy listening to stories about heroes?
BEFORE YOU READ Building Background Sundiata came to power around 1235, when he freed Mali from the control of a neighboring kingdom. He built his capital in Niani, which was located on a tributary of the Niger River. Enriched by profits from the gold trade, Niani became an important commercial center.
BEFORE YOU READ Building Background Sundiata continued to expand the empire until his death in 1255. Under his successors, the empire flourished. At a time when bandits roamed through other areas, Mali was known as a safe and orderly place. “Neither traveler nor inhabitant in it has anything to fear from robbers or men of violence,” wrote an early Arab visitor.
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Acts of Courage As you read, notice how the characters in the Sundiata display their courage.
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Dialogue Dialogue is the written conversation between characters in a literary work. Through dialogue, an author reveals the feelings, thoughts, and intentions of characters, develops conflicts, and moves the plot forward.
BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Dialogue As you read, analyze the dialogue in this legend and consider how it reveals characters and advances the plot.
BEFORE YOU READ Identifying Genre Genre is a category or type of literary work characterized by a particular form or style. One important genre of folklore is legends, or stories that are believed to be based on historical events and an actual hero. Legends help convey a culture’s learning, knowledge, and values.
BEFORE YOU READ Identifying Genre Reading Tip: Making a Chart Record details of the Sundiata that help you identify it as a legend.
BEFORE YOU READ scrupulousadj. thoroughly attentive to even the smallest details; precise (p. 1027) Ana’s knitting was scrupulous. eludev. to avoid or escape, especially through cleverness or quickness (p. 1027) As one child gave chase, the other child tried to elude her. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
BEFORE YOU READ confidanten. a person who is entrusted with secrets or private affairs (p. 1028) Only Eric’s confidante knew about his secret plans. perpetuatev. to cause to continue to be remembered (p. 1028) Gossip can perpetuate hurtful and untrue rumors. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Keep these questions in mind as you read:How does Sundiata react to injustice? Is he a warrior or a peacemaker? Answer: Sundiata could be described as both; he waged war to correct social injustice, to defend those who could not defend themselves, and to bring peace.
READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Identifying Genre Read the text highlighted in blue on page 1027.Which items in this summary indicate that the legend will include exaggerated elements? Answer:The soothsayer’s instructions, Sundiata’s tearing a tree from the ground, and the sorcerer’s ability to disappear indicate that the legend will include exaggeration.
READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Dialogue Read the text highlighted in purple on page 1027. What does Nana Triban wish to convey to her half-brother? Answer:Her loyalty and the fact that the Mali people are in trouble.
READING THE SELECTION Acts of Courage Read the text highlighted in tan on page 1028. What risks does Nana Triban take while staying with Soumaoro? What does the legend imply about how one should act in times of danger?
READING THE SELECTION Answer:Though Soumaoro is violent and it could be dangerous to mislead him, Nana Triban pretends that she is loyal to Soumaoro and tries to get him to confide in her. The legend implies that one should be brave and resourceful in times of danger.