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Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers

Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers

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Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers

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  1. Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers

  2. Examples of Invasive Plants in California • Water Hyacinth • Hydrilla • Eurasian Watermilfoil • Giant Salvinia • Brazilian Elodea • Arundo • Spongeplant

  3. Characteristics of Invasive Plants • Clog lakes & waterways • Interferes with commerce and recreation • Displace native plants • Clogs water diversions and pumps • Depletes dissolved oxygen levels • Increase sedimentation • Can cause flooding

  4. New Invader: South American spongeplant • Many seeds & small seedlings move easily. • Spongeplant mixed with duckweed. Red circles show spongeplant seedlings. • Seeds survive at least three years.

  5. New Invader: South American spongeplant • It chokes out everything. • 2003 first California infestation found in Redding and Arcata. • Out competes several other aggressive water weeds, like water primrose and parrots feather


  7. It’s really starting to spread 2003: First records were in Arcata and Redding. 2007: San Joaquin River in Fresno. Antioch in Sacramento River, but seemed to disappear after a storm. 2008: Found in a canal off the Kings River east of Fresno and canals in western Fresno County. 2009 & 2010, it was again found in the Delta.

  8. But maybe we can beat it. Before treatment After treatment Left:Spongeplant in a canal in western Fresno County. Right: The same canal two weeks after treatment. Spongeplant spreads easily but it is relatively easy to control, if it hasn’t had time to make a lot of seeds. HELP THE EFFORT! The California Department of Food and Agriculture will be surveying in 2011 to find out how much spongeplant has spread. You can help by reporting finds or having your stream, pond, or canals checked. And thanks. For more information: To report plants or find out about surveys: Patrick Akers at

  9. Examples of Invasive Fauna Species • Asian Clam • Chinese Mitten Crab • New Zealand Mudsnail • Florida Watersnake (Nerodia) • Asian Carp

  10. Asian Clam (Corbiculafluminea) • Introduced in 1800’s for human consumption • High densities, out-competes native clams • Impairs water delivery systems by clogging pipes, valves and sprinklers • Traps sediment, forms bars in agriculture canals, alters flow • Bioaccumulation of toxins

  11. Intentional releases for human consumption and/or via ballast water Clog fish salvage facilities Create losses for fisheries Reduced catch Damages fishing nets Threatens levee stability Potential host for human lung fluke Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheirsinensis)

  12. New Zealand Mudsnail(Potamopyrgusantipodarum) • From New Zealand • 750,000 NZMS per square meter • Competes for space and food • Ties up nutrients – not digestible by most fish or birds, shell takes a long time to decompose • Shells block pipes, filters and grates Ken Davis Distribution of the New Zealand mudsnail in California.

  13. Southern Watersnake (Nerodiafasciata) • Native to southeastern US • Threat to CA native and federally listed giant garter snake (Thamnophis gigas)

  14. Asian Carp (Black Silver and Bighead) • Reach extremely high population densities • Impact populations of native mussels and snails (black carp) • Potentiallydeplete zooplankton populations (silver and bighead)

  15. List of Invasive Species from Common Teasel (Dipsacusfullonum) Dalmatian Toadflax (Linariadalmatica) Diffuse Knapweed (Centaureadiffusa) Downy Brome (Bromustectorum) Fig Buttercup (Ranunculus ficaria) Garlic Mustard (Alliariapetiolata) Giant Hogweed (Heracleummantegazzianum) Hairy Whitetop (Lepidiumappelianum) Houndstongue (Cynoglossumofficinale) Japanese Stilt Grass (Microstegiumvimineum) Japanese World Climbing Fern (Lygodiumjaponicum) Japanese Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica) Japanese Spiraea (Spiraea japonica) New(Jun 25, 2009) Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) Kudzu (Puerariamontana var. lobata) Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula) Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) Mile-A-Minute Weed (Persicariaperfoliata) Multiflora Rose (Rosa multiflora) Musk Thistle (Carduusnutans) Old Russian Olive (Elaeagnusangustifolia) Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) St. Johnswort (Hypericumperforatum) Scotch Broom (Cytisusscoparius) Scotch Thistle (Onopordumacanthium) Spotted Knapweed (Centaureastoebe) Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) Tropical Soda Apple (Solanumviarum) Whitetop (Lepidiumdraba) Witchweed (Strigaasiatica) New(Apr 9, 2009) Yellow Star Thistle (Centaureasolstitialis) Yellow Toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) Africanized Honeybee (Apismelliferascutellata) Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorinacitri) Asian Long-Horned Beetle (Anoplophoraglabripennis) Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedesalbopictus) Cactus Moth (Cactoblastiscactorum) ChillipThrips (Scirtothripsdorsalis) New(Jul 30, 2009) Citrus Longhorned Beetle (Anoplophorachinensis) Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilusplanipennis) European Gypsy Moth (Lymantriadispar) European Spruce Bark Beetle (Ipstypographus) Formosan Subterranean Termite (Coptotermesformosanus) Giant African Snail (Achatinafulica) Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter (Homalodiscacoagulata) Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelgestsugae) Light Brown Apple Moth (Epiphyaspostvittana) Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitiscapitata) Mexican Fruit Fly (Anastrephaludens) Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (Maconellicoccushirsutus) Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsisinvicta) Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphisnoxia) Silverleaf Whitefly (Bemisiaargentifolii) SirexWoodwasp (Sirexnoctilio) Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heteroderaglycines) Brown Tree Snake (Boigairregularis) Cane Toad (Bufomarinus) European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) Wild Boar (Susscrofa) Avian Influenza (Orthomyxoviridae) Exotic Newcastle Disease (Paramyxovirus) Fowlpox (Avipoxvirus) Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (Novirhabdovirus) West Nile Virus (Flavivirus) Whirling Disease (Myxoboluscerebralis) Citrus Canker (Xanthomonasaxonopodis) Citrus Greening (Liberibacterasiaticus) Dogwood Anthracnose (Disculadestructiva) Gladiolus Rust (Uromycestransversalis) (Jun 11, 2009) Late Blight (Phytophthorainfestans) (Jul 9, 2009) Laurel Wilt (Raffaelealauricola) (Aug 13, 2009) Plum Pox (Potyviruses: Potyviridae) Southern Bacterial Wilt (Ralstoniasolanacearum) Soybean Rust (Phakopsorameibomiae) Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthoraramorum) White Pine Blister Rust (Cronartiumribicola) Brazilian Peppertree (Schinusterebinthifolius) Canada Thistle (Cirsiumarvense) Chinese Tallow (Triadicasebifera) Cogongrass (Imperatacylindrica) Alligatorweed (Alternantheraphiloxeroides) Brazilian Waterweed (Egeriadensa) Caulerpa, Mediterranean Clone (Caulerpataxifolia) Common Reed (Phragmitesaustralis) Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllumspicatum) Didymo (Didymospheniageminata) Giant Reed (Arundodonax) Giant Salvinia (Salviniamolesta) Hydrilla (Hydrillaverticillata) Melaleuca (Melaleucaquinquenervia) Purple Loosestrife (Lythrumsalicaria) Water Chestnut (Trapanatans) Water Hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes) Water Lettuce (Pistiastratiotes) Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) Alewife (Alosapseudoharengus) Asian Carps Asian Swamp Eel (Monopterusalbus) Bullfrog (Ranacatesbeiana) Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheirsinensis) Clubbed Tunicate (Styelaclava) New(Jun 16, 2009) Eurasian Ruffe (Gymnocephaluscernuus) European Green Crab (Carcinusmaenas) Flathead Catfish (Pylodictusolivaris) Lionfish (Pteroisvolitans) Northern Snakehead (Channaargus) New Zealand Mud Snail (Potamopyrgusantipodarum) Nutria (Myocastor coypus) Quagga Mussel (Dreissenabugensis) Round Goby (Neogobiusmelanostomus) Rusty Crayfish (Orconectesrusticus) Sea Lamprey (Petromyzonmarinus) Sea Squirt (Didemnumvexillum) Spiny Water Flea (Bythotrepheslongimanus) Veined Rapa Whelk (Rapanavenosa) Zebra Mussel (Dreissenapolymorpha) Air Potato (Dioscoreabulbifera) New(May 26, 2009) Autumn Olive (Elaeagnusumbellata) Beach Vitex (Vitexrotundifolia)

  16. Daily Flights, A Smaller World, Global Pathways

  17. Pathways of IntroductionHow do they get here: • Aquaria • Aquaculture • Ballast • Intentional Stocking • Recreational • Environmental • Food (seafood) • Gardening

  18. Natural Resource Management Activities Pathways • Invasive Species Monitoring • Fisheries Surveys • Water Monitoring • Terrestrial Surveys • Restoration

  19. Natural Resource Management Activities Pathways • Invasive Species Monitoring • Fisheries Surveys • Water Monitoring • Terrestrial Surveys • Restoration

  20. Control of Invasive Species with Best Management Practices • Decontamination • Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Planning

  21. HACCP • Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Planning • Tool that manages the risk of moving non-targets • Risk assessment of potential pathways

  22. HACCP • Risk assessment determines the likelihood of moving species to an area where they may become invasive. • This process assumes that the impact of any invasive species introduction is significant

  23. HACCP • Once it is determined that a pathway poses a significant risk, then a plan is implemented to reduce this risk. • Utilize the HACCP planning process framework.

  24. Easy five step tool • Defines the critical point in a given activity whereby the risk of a hazard can be reduced to an acceptable level. • The risk of a hazard is reduced by means of a control measure. • This control measure is then evaluated

  25. Best Management Practices Decontamination • Decontaminate after each survey.

  26. Decontamination

  27. Decontamination • Methods: • Drying • Chemical • Sparquat, Bleach, Quat, Virkon, 409 Degreaser, Vinegar… • Freezing • Water • Water pressure • Hot water • rinsing

  28. Decontamination • Methods: • Drying • Chemical (Soak or Spray and Brush) • Sparquat, Bleach, Quat, Virkon, 409 Degreaser, Vinegar… • Freezing • Water • Water pressure • Hot water • rinsing

  29. Decontamination

  30. Your help is needed Contact us if you’d like to set up an HACCP workshop Jonathan Thompson $#&*!

  31. Questions?