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Aquatic Botany

Aquatic Botany

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Aquatic Botany

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  1. Aquatic Botany Angiosperms

  2. Hydrophytes Plants growing in water or on a substrate that is at least periodically deficient in oxygen as a result of excessive water content.

  3. Categorizing Wetland Plants for Delineation Purposes(p. 755 of Mitsch) • Obligate Wetland (OBL)-occur almost always (>99%) in wetlands; E.g., Typha latifolia, Cattail • Facultative Wetland (FACW)-occur usually (67-99%) in wetlands, but also occur in non-wetlands (1-33%); E.g., Onoclea sensibilis, Sensitive Fern • Facultative (FAC)-similar likelihood of occurring in wetlands and non-wetlands (33-67%); E.g., Euthamia graminifolia, Grass-leaved Goldenrod • Facultative Upland (FACU)-occur sometimes in wetlands (1-33%) but more often in non wetlands; E.g., Quercus rubra, Red Oak • Obligate Upland (UPL)-occur rarely (<1%) in wetlands; e.g., Dennsteadtia punctilobula, Hay-scented Fern (+/- may be appended)

  4. Categorizing Wetland Plants by Growth Form • Emergent-with leaves that extend above the water surface; e.g., Northern Blue Flag, Iris versicolor • Free-floating-float freely on the water surface; e.g., Duckweed, Lemna minor • Floating-leaved-leaves float on water surface; e.g., Spatterdock, Nuphar variegata • Submersed-most of leaves growing under water surface; e.g., Curly-leaf Pondweed, Potomogeton crispus

  5. Emergents Blue Flag Iris Cattail, Typha sp.

  6. Emergents • tolerate fluctuating water levels • may dampen shoreline wave erosion; stabilize sediments with interlocking rootbed of rhizomes • usually with protective waxy cuticle • leaves with aerenchymous tissue making them buoyant, useful for waterfowl nests • may reproduce aerially (flowers) or vegetatively by rhizomes

  7. Aerenchyma

  8. Purple Loosestrife American Burreed, Sparganium americanum

  9. Floating-leaved Plants Water Meal, Wolfia sp. Giant Duckweed, Spirodelia

  10. Floating-Leaved Plant Community • cirucular/eliptical leaves with smooth margins resist tearing • leathery; thick cuticle (waterproofing) • stomata on surface • aerenchyma • often long petioles; often covered with mucilage • may reproduce from flowers or by extensive rhizomes • free-floating plants produce turions to overwinter

  11. Fragrant White Water Lily, Nymphea Spatterdock

  12. Submersed Plant Community • leaves flexible, often finely divided; provide structure for invertebrates • no cuticle; often limp-the water provides support • heterophylly is common • stems photosynthesize • some reproduce from seed, others by turion, rhizomes, or tuber

  13. Submersed Plants Naiad, Najas sp.

  14. Elodea canadensis

  15. Pondweeds, Potomogeton sp.

  16. Carex Bristly Sedge, C. comosa Tussock Sedge, Carex stricta

  17. Juncus Soft Rush, Juncuseffusus