Aquatic Botany Angiosperms
Hydrophytes Plants growing in water or on a substrate that is at least periodically deficient in oxygen as a result of excessive water content.
Categorizing Wetland Plants for Delineation Purposes(p. 755 of Mitsch) • Obligate Wetland (OBL)-occur almost always (>99%) in wetlands; E.g., Typha latifolia, Cattail • Facultative Wetland (FACW)-occur usually (67-99%) in wetlands, but also occur in non-wetlands (1-33%); E.g., Onoclea sensibilis, Sensitive Fern • Facultative (FAC)-similar likelihood of occurring in wetlands and non-wetlands (33-67%); E.g., Euthamia graminifolia, Grass-leaved Goldenrod • Facultative Upland (FACU)-occur sometimes in wetlands (1-33%) but more often in non wetlands; E.g., Quercus rubra, Red Oak • Obligate Upland (UPL)-occur rarely (<1%) in wetlands; e.g., Dennsteadtia punctilobula, Hay-scented Fern (+/- may be appended)
Categorizing Wetland Plants by Growth Form • Emergent-with leaves that extend above the water surface; e.g., Northern Blue Flag, Iris versicolor • Free-floating-float freely on the water surface; e.g., Duckweed, Lemna minor • Floating-leaved-leaves float on water surface; e.g., Spatterdock, Nuphar variegata • Submersed-most of leaves growing under water surface; e.g., Curly-leaf Pondweed, Potomogeton crispus
Emergents Blue Flag Iris Cattail, Typha sp.
Emergents • tolerate fluctuating water levels • may dampen shoreline wave erosion; stabilize sediments with interlocking rootbed of rhizomes • usually with protective waxy cuticle • leaves with aerenchymous tissue making them buoyant, useful for waterfowl nests • may reproduce aerially (flowers) or vegetatively by rhizomes
Purple Loosestrife American Burreed, Sparganium americanum
Floating-leaved Plants Water Meal, Wolfia sp. Giant Duckweed, Spirodelia
Floating-Leaved Plant Community • cirucular/eliptical leaves with smooth margins resist tearing • leathery; thick cuticle (waterproofing) • stomata on surface • aerenchyma • often long petioles; often covered with mucilage • may reproduce from flowers or by extensive rhizomes • free-floating plants produce turions to overwinter
Fragrant White Water Lily, Nymphea Spatterdock
Submersed Plant Community • leaves flexible, often finely divided; provide structure for invertebrates • no cuticle; often limp-the water provides support • heterophylly is common • stems photosynthesize • some reproduce from seed, others by turion, rhizomes, or tuber
Submersed Plants Naiad, Najas sp.
Carex Bristly Sedge, C. comosa Tussock Sedge, Carex stricta
Juncus Soft Rush, Juncuseffusus