Botany Questions • How did you use/benefit from plants over the last 24 hours? • What are the major plant organs? • What do vascular tissues do?
Food Products • Vegetables (non-reproductive parts)
Food Products • Fruits • Food from ovaries of flowers
Food Products • Legumes • Soy bean, green beans, peanuts • Nuts • Walnut, almond
Adaptation to Land • Cuticle • Waxy, waterproof barrier prevents evaporation • Stoma • Gas exchange
Adaptation to Land • Seeds • Embryo + food + seed coat Provides post-germination energy May include dispersal mechanisms
Adaptation to Land • Vascular System
Adaptation to Land • Vascular System • Vascular bundles contain both tissue types
Mosses (Bryophytes) • Mostly haploid • No cuticle • No vascular system • No seeds
Ferns • Mostly diploid • Cuticle • Vascular system • No seeds
Gymnosperms • Mostly diploid • Cuticle • Vascular system • Seeds (from cones)
Monocots & Dicots Monocotyledons Cereal crops, grasses, palm trees One seed leaf Dicotyledons Beans, roses, cactuses, most trees Two seed leaves
Stems • Function • Transport of materials between roots and leaves • Elevation of flowers and leaves
Secondary Growth • Vascular cambium produces new xylem (to the inside) and phloem (to the outside). Vascular Cambium Phloem Xylem
P Secondary Growth P P P P P P P P P P P P VC VC P P VC VC X X P VC VC X X X X VC X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Stems Vascular Cambium Summerwood Springwood Summerwood Springwood Phloem Xylem
Leaves • Function • Produce carbohydrates • Structure • Mesophyll • Vein • Xylem on top • Phloem on bottom
Plant Review Monocot or Dicot?
Plant Review • What flower parts are female? • How are dead xylem cells still functional? • What is a common source for the flow of phloem sap? What’s a common sink? • What comprises the bark of trees? • What is the advantage of plants expending large amounts of energy for large, showy flowers?