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Electronic Note Cards

Electronic Note Cards

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Electronic Note Cards

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  1. Electronic Note Cards • Write your text evidence for your research paper on these note cards. • Use only one source per note card. • Write only one piece of text evidence on each note card. • There is no minimum amount of note cards you have to complete. But, you need to make sure you have enough information from four different sources to answer all of the questions on the paragraph outline. • Easily add new slides any time. • Change the font of each slide so each paragraph has the same font. • You can easily re-order the slides anytime. (View Slide Sorter) • Slides can be printed with several on a page.

  2. Font Key Example • Paragraph 2 (Who? What? When? Where?) – Bradley Hand • Paragraph 3 (How did this problem begin?) – Cooper Black • Paragraph 4 (What makes your example of genocide the most in need of immediate financial aid?) – Juice ITC • Paragraph 5 (Conclusion) – Harrington

  3. Works Cited(feel free to include more than 4 sources!) 1. Kornblum, Aaron T. "Concentration camp." World Book Student. World Book, 2012. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. 2. McGill, David. "Hitler and the Holocaust." Hindsight Jan. 2010: 10+. Junior Edition. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. 3. Johannsen, Zoe. "I will survive: one girl's life in a Nazi Death Camp." Current Events, a Weekly Reader publication 10 May 2010: 4+. Junior Edition. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. 4. Berenbaum, Michael. "Holocaust." World Book Student. World Book, 2012. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. 5. Gerlach, Christian. "Holocaust." Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Ed. Dinah L. Shelton. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 453-461. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 Aug. 2012. 6. Michalczyk, John. "Films, Holocaust Documentary." Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Ed. Dinah L. Shelton. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 368-370. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. 7. "Ghettos." Holocaust Encyclopedia. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 11 May 2012. Web. 10 Apr 2013. <>.

  4. Works Cited(feel free to include more than 4 sources!) 8. "Introduction to the Holocaust.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 11 May 2012. Web. 14 Apr 2013. <>. 9. "Glossary.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 11 May 2012. Web. 14 Apr 2013. <>. 10. Hoffmann, Peter. "Hitler, Adolf." World Book Student. World Book, 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. 11. Nunn, Kenneth B. "Racism." World Book Student. World Book, 2013. Web. 17 Apr. 2013.

  5. What? and Who? (general info. about concentration camps) Source citation #: 1 • “Nazi concentration camps were created soon after Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933. The Nazis established the first permanent camp in Dachau, Germany, near Munich, in March 1933. Nazi camps held socialists, Communists, and other political prisoners; Jews; homosexuals; priests and ministers; and many others. After World War II started in September 1939, the Nazis increasingly used camp inmates for slave labor.” (Kornblum) n. pag

  6. What?(concentration camps – no true plans) Source citation #: 2 • The way the murdering happened in Auschwitz was unplanned and indirect. (McGill) n. pag

  7. Who?(a personal account of arriving at a death camp) Source citation #: 3 • “Within 10 minutes, my father and two older sisters were gone. And my mother was ripped apart from us. Within 30 minutes, Miriam and I no longer had a family.... They were gone, disappeared from the face of this Earth.” (Johannsen 4+) 4+

  8. When? Where?(death camps’ creation) Source citation #: 2 • Nazis started to create death camps in 1941. Many Jews were killed at these camps through inhaling poison gas or other cruel techniques. Six death camps were created in Poland: “German-occupied Poland—Auschwitz, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka” (Kornblum). (Kornblum) n. pag

  9. What happened?(ethnic cleansing) Source citation #: 5 • The Nazis forced Jews to leave the country from 1933 – 1939; two-thirds of all Jews from Germany and Austria left before WWII started. These Jews were generally young and/or rich. (Gerlach 453-461) 453-461

  10. What happened?(Law for the Protection of the German Blood and Honor – ban on marriages – even before Nuremburg laws were created) Source citation #: 5 • Jews were harassed by the Nazis and were not allowed to the enjoy the rights and privileges they had previously as citizens of Germany. Laws against Jews, such as the “Law for the Protection of the German Blood and Honor,” which banned relationships between Jews and non-Jews, were created. (Gerlach 453-461) 453-461

  11. What happened?(Hitler’s creation of anti-Semitic laws) Source citation #: 4 • Hitler started to enforce laws that banned Jews from owning businesses, having certain occupations, getting an education, and farming land on April 1, 1933. (Berenbaum) n. pag

  12. What happened?(Nuremburg laws) Source citation #: 4 • Jews could not be citizens starting in 1935 because of the Nuremberg laws. These laws outlined “who was a Jew and who was a part-Jew” (Berenbaum) and who was not a Jew. (Berenbaum) n. pag

  13. What happened?(death camps) Source citation #: 1 • Nazis started to create death camps in 1941. Many Jews were killed at these camps through inhaling poison gas or other cruel techniques. Six death camps were created in Poland: “German-occupied Poland—Auschwitz, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka” (Kornblum). (Kornblum) n. pag

  14. What happened?(Kristallnacht – The Night of Broken Glass) Source citation #: 4 • “The Nazi persecution reached a new height on Nov. 9, 1938. Beginning that night and continuing for about 24 hours, Nazis destroyed thousands of Jewish-owned businesses and burned most synagogues in Germany and Austria. They beat Jews in the streets and attacked them in their homes. They killed dozens of Jews. They arrested about 30,000 Jews and sent them to concentration camps (camps for political prisoners). The night became known as Kristallnacht, a German word meaning Crystal Night. In English, it is called the Night of Broken Glass.” (Berenbaum) n. pag

  15. What happened?(Hitler’s rash decision making – showing “radical” behavior Source citation #: 2 • “Hitler often left policy undecided until late in the day, when he suddenly prompted a radical solution to whatever issue needed dealing with.” (McGill) n. pag

  16. What happened?(cruelty of Hitler and his decision-making skills) Source citation #: 2 • Sometimes, the death of millions of people was caused by a mere head nod by Hitler; he did not even use words. (McGill) n. pag

  17. What happened? OR ONE shocking fact for paragraph 4(witness account from inside Auschwitz - Eva Kor) Source citation #: 3 • “We had a lot of health problems. We had a lot of infections--skin infections. My teeth were in very bad shape. I had a lot of unexplainable problems that [were probably from malnutrition].” (Johannsen 4+) 4+

  18. What happened?(ghettos – forcing Jews to live there) Source citation #: 7 • “The term "ghetto" originated from the name of the Jewish quarter in Venice, established in 1516, in which the Venetian authorities compelled the city's Jews to live… There were three types of ghettos: closed ghettos, open ghettos, and destruction ghettos. • The largest ghetto in Poland was the Warsaw ghetto, where more than 400,000 Jews were crowded into an area of 1.3 square miles. Other major ghettos were established in the cities of Lodz, Krakow, Bialystok, Lvov, Lublin, Vilna, Kovno, Czestochowa, and Minsk. Tens of thousands of western European Jews were also deported to ghettos in the east.” (“Ghettos”) n. pag

  19. What happened?(why ghettos were created and why they were destroyed) Source citation #: 7 • Ghettos were originally created in order to capture all the Jewish people and control them while the Nazis decided how to remove them from Germany and, eventually, the world. But, the “Final Solution,” created in 1941, caused Nazis to start ruining the ghettos and immediately killing or sending the Jews to death camps. (“Ghettos”) n. pag

  20. What happened?(ghettos – Jewish person identification and the Jewish “ghetto police”) Source citation #: 7 • In ghettos, Jewish people were ordered to “wear identifying badges or armbands” and to work as slave labor. Nazis created Jewish-led “ghetto police” forces, who were required to enforce the Nazi’s rules. Anyone who opposed or did not follow the requirements was immediately killed by the Nazis. (“Ghettos”) n. pag

  21. What happened?(meaning of “holocaust”) Source citation #: 8 • “‘Holocaust’ is a word of Greek origin meaning ‘sacrifice by fire’” (“Introduction to the Holocaust”). • INTRODUCTION? (“Introduction to the Holocaust”) n. pag

  22. What happened?(the yellow star) Source citation #: 9 • “Yellow star: a badge featuring the Star of David (a symbol of Judaism) used by the Nazi regime during the Holocaust as a method of visibly identifying Jews.” (“Glossary”) n. pag

  23. What happened?(name of Hitler’s government) Source citation #: 10 • The “Third Reich” was the name of Hitler’s government. • “Altogether, Hitler's forces killed about 6 million European Jews as well as about 5 million other people that Hitler regarded as racially inferior or politically dangerous.” • “Hitler spread death as no person has done in modern history. "Have no pity! Act brutally!" he told his soldiers.” • Nazis gained power through speeches, promises, and propaganda and created a government called the Third Reich; he blamed “enemies,” meaning the Jews, for Germany’s Great Depression and for German speakers who did not live in Germany to be separated from the rest of Germany (Hoffmann) n. pag

  24. What happened?(ghettos – what they were, how many, first one in Poland in 1939) Source citation #: 7 • During World War II, ghettos were city districts (often enclosed) in which the Germans concentrated the municipal and sometimes regional Jewish population and forced them to live under miserable conditions. Ghettos isolated Jews by separating Jewish communities from the non-Jewish population and from other Jewish communities. The Germans established at least 1,000 ghettos in German-occupied and annexed Poland and the Soviet Union alone. German occupation authorities established the first ghetto in Poland in PiotrkówTrybunalski in October 1939. (“Ghettos”) n. pag

  25. What happened?(meaning of “holocaust”) Source citation #: 8 • “‘Holocaust’ is a word of Greek origin meaning ‘sacrifice by fire’” (“Introduction to the Holocaust”). • INTRODUCTION? (“Introduction to the Holocaust”) n. pag

  26. What happened?(who were the SS?) Source citation #: 9 • The SS was originally made to protect Hitler but later took over took over killing the victims. (“Glossary”) n. pag

  27. What happened? Where?(Auschwitz – worst death camp) Source citation #: 1 • Auschwitz is the most famous of all death camps. The genocide of 1 ¼ million people happened there during WWII. (Kornblum) n. pag

  28. What happened?(how they decided who would die immediately and who would work; what they did with the bodies) Source citation #: 1 • Nazis used a process to determine which prisoners they would immediately kill and which prisoners they would keep for slave labor. For example, after the inmates got to Auschwitz, they were stripped of all their belongings. People who were deemed too weak or young, who were women, or who were disabled were sent immediately to the gas chambers. “Able-bodied” inmates were sent to slave labor. Those prisoners who became sick or too feeble for work were then killed. Even after the inmates were murdered Nazis would remove anything of value from the bodies. (Kornblum) n. pag

  29. Where? Source citation #: 5 • Hitler and his army took over Poland, where 2.5 million Jews lived, in 1939. He then took over eight other European countries by 1941. In all his territories Hitler enforced Anti-Semitic laws and policies. (Gerlach 453-461) 453-461

  30. How did this problem begin?(the state of Germany after WWI) Source citation #: 4 • After WWI, Germany’s economy was in a serious depression. The Jews to blame for this, according to Hitler. (Berenbaum) Pg. # or n. pag

  31. How did this problem begin?(Hitler leading Germany) Source citation #: 4 • Hitler officially started to lead the German government in 1933 and became dictator shortly after. (Berenbaum) Pg. # or n. pag

  32. How did this problem begin?(Hitler taking over the world) Source citation #: 4 • Hitler wanted to take over the world and get rid of all the Jews to do so. (Berenbaum) Pg. # or n. pag

  33. How did this problem begin?(origin of anti-Semitic beliefs in Germany) Source citation #: 5 • “With the growing importance of the workers' movement and Marxism, anti-Semitism increased further after the Russian October revolution of 1917.” (Gerlach 4543-461) 453-461

  34. How did this problem begin?(racial purity propaganda in the form of documentaries) Source citation #: 6 • “Peter Cohen's documentary films Architecture of Doom (1991) and Homo Sapiens 1990 (2000) both delineate how, in Germany, "aesthetic" cleansing both in art and human form, as well as "racial purity," would become rationales for the mass murder of the weak and marginalized.” 368 (Michalczyk 368)

  35. How did this problem begin? (experiments in concentration camps) Source citation #: 6 • In the Shadow of the Reich: Nazi Medicine (1996), a documentary film made by John Michalczyk, states that the Third Reich’s idea of eugenics and the Nazi’s cruel experiments in concentration camps truly came from the United States’“involuntary sterilization laws” made in the 1920s. (Michalczyk 368) 368

  36. How did this problem begin?(eugenics and the idea of the perfect person) Source citation #: 6 • The Third Reich’s anti-Semitic beliefs came from their support of eugenics and the idea that they could create the “perfect” race of “superior” people. People who were just like them. (Michalczyk 368) 368

  37. What happened?/What is the underlying cause of this genocide?(the creation of propaganda – making the public believe in the Nazi Party’s anti-Semitic beliefs) Source citation #: 6 • Joseph Goebbels became the Reich Minister of Propaganda and Enlightenment in 1933, and subsequently all German-made films were scrupulously censored by his office—as part of the effort to promote a collective vision of an "Aryan" Germany and its great destiny. (Michalczyk 368) 368

  38. How did the genocide begin?(creation of the Nazi Party) Source citation #: 10 • “After Hitler recovered from the mustard gas, he returned to Munich and remained in the army until March 1920. In the autumn of 1919, he began to attend meetings of a small nationalist group called the German Workers' Party. He joined the party and changed its name to the National Socialist German Workers' Party. The group became known as the Nazi Party.” (Hoffmann) n. pag

  39. How did the genocide begin?(Nazis gaining power) Source citation #: 10 • “Hitler was a skillful politician and organizer. He became leader of the Nazis and quickly built up party membership—partly by his ability to stir crowds with his speeches. Hitler attacked the government and declared that the Nazi Party could restore the economy, assure work for all, and lead Germany to greatness again.” (Hoffmann) n. pag

  40. How did this problem begin?/What is the underlying cause of the genocide?(depiction of Jews vs. Third Reich in propaganda films) Source citation #: 6 • “More pernicious is the viscerally anti-Semitic film The Eternal Jew (1940), which compares Jews to rodents that have infested civilized society. In general, the Nazi documentaries portray Hitler and the Third Reich as saviors of the German people—a superior race destined for eternal glory. “ (Michalczyk 369) 369

  41. What happened? OR ONE shocking fact for paragraph 4(witness account from inside Auschwitz - Eva Kor) Source citation #: 3 • “I did not know that they died when I was in Auschwitz. Nobody really knew.... Everything was a big, dark secret, and we did not know what was going on....” (Johannsen 4+) 4+

  42. What happened after the genocide ended?(loss of Jewish culture in Germany) Source citation #: 5 • After the Holocaust, Europe lost much of its Jewish culture. Jews who moved to Israel and other countries after the war helped further distance Germany from Judaism. (Gerlach 453-461) 453-461

  43. What happened after the genocide ended?(2 phases of court cases to indict Nazis) Source citation #: 5 • There were two phases to the court cases against the Nazis and others involved in supporting and continuing the Holocaust. One happened right after WWII ended and the other happened after 1957. (Gerlach 453-461) 453-461

  44. What happened after the genocide ended?(questionable fairness of court cases to indict Nazis – “Congress” NEEDS to FAIRLY punish Nazis!) Source citation #: 5 • Even though there were about 100,000 Nazis and other people who committed violence against the Jews, not many received punishment for their actions. This leniency caused people to wonder if the trials were fair. (Gerlach 453-461) 453-461

  45. What happened after the genocide?(increased awareness of genocide) Source citation #: 5 • Although the trials did not seem to justly punish the Nazis, they did raise awareness of the Holocaust. (Gerlach 453-461) 453-461

  46. The end of the genocide(want to indict Nazi leaders) Source citation #: 4 • The Allies announced their want to convict the Nazi leaders in 1943. This want and anger grew much stronger when the killing centers were discovered at the end of the war. (In text citation) Pg. # or n. pag

  47. What happened after the genocide?(convicting the Nazi leaders – 4 different crime charges) Source citation #: 4 • At the end of the court cases, Nazi leaders faced four kinds of crime charges: “conspiracy to commit crimes against peace, crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity” (Berenbaum). (Berenbaum) n. pag

  48. How did the genocide end?(death marches) Source citation #: 8 • “In the final months of the war, SS guards moved camp inmates by train or on forced marches, often called”death marches,” in an attempt to prevent the Allied liberation of large numbers of prisoners. As Allied forces moved across Europe in a series of offensives against Germany, they began to encounter and liberate concentration camp prisoners, as well as prisoners en route by forced march from one camp to another. The marches continued until May 7, 1945, the day the German armed forces surrendered unconditionally to the Allies.” (“Introduction to the Holocaust”) n. pag

  49. When did the genocide end? Source citation #: 8 • “For the western Allies, World War II officially ended in Europe on the next day, May 8 (V-E Day), while Soviet forces announced their “Victory Day” on May 9, 1945.” (“Introduction to the Holocaust”) n. pag

  50. Why?(Aryan race) Source citation #:11 • Adolf Hitler, the ruler of Nazi Germany, preached that Germans belonged to the “superior Aryan race,” and that Jews and other non-Aryans were inferior. Hitler's racist beliefs resulted in the murder of millions of Jews and others during the 1930's and 1940's. (Nunn) n. pag