Organic Chemistry Basics General Chemistry
Properties of Carbon • Carbon is a non-metal • Carbon has 4 valence electrons. • Carbon can form up to 4 bonds. • The Lewis Dot Structure for carbon shows how carbon can form these 4 bonds.
Prefixes for Carbon Compounds • Meth – 1 carbon • Eth – 2 carbons • Prop – 3 carbons • But – 4 carbons • Pent – 5 carbons • Hex – 6 carbons • Hept – 7 carbons • Oct – 8 carbons • Non – 9 carbons • Dec – 10 carbons
Types of Organic Compounds • Hydrocarbons – contains the elements, hydrogen and carbon • Carbohydrates – contains the elements, hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen • Complex polymers • Biological molecules
Hydrocarbons • Three basic hydrocarbons • Alkanes – single bonds between carbon atoms • Alkenes – double bonds between carbons atoms • Alkynes – triple bonds between carbon atoms • Examples: • C-C is ethane • C=C is ethene • C= C is ethyne
Petrochemicals • Petrochemicals contain hydrocarbons. • Propane, butane, and octane are some of the most common. • Propane is a single chained carbon molecule with 3 carbon atoms • Butane is a single chained carbon molecule with 4 carbon atoms. • Octane is a single chained carbon molecule with 8 carbon atoms
Identification of Carbon Chains • Draw a Lewis Dot of the molecule. • Identify the number of hydrogen atoms and attach as appropriate. Spread evenly. • Keep functional groups and carbon/hydrogen groupings together. • Name the compound based on Functional Groups.
Name and Draw the Following Compounds • CH4 methane • C2H6 ethane • C2H4 ethene • C2H2 ethyne • CH3CH2OH ethanol • CH2O formaldehyde • C6H6 benzene • CH3COOH acetic acid (ethanoic acid)
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Saturated – a molecule whose carbon atoms bond to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms Unsaturated – a molecule that contains a carbon-carbon multiple bond, to which more hydrogen atoms can be added Alkanes are typically saturated. Alkenes and alkynes are unsaturated due to their multiple bonds.
Carbohydrates • Composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. • Examples: • Sucrose • Glucose
Polymers • Polymers are created when small molecules link together in repetitive subunits. • Polymers can be natural or synthetic (human-made) • Natural polymers: proteins and nucleic acids • Synthetic polymers: polythene, nylon, and Kevlar • Common pharmaceuticals such as aspirin, vitamins, and insulin are organic.
Natural Polymers • Proteins – large biological molecule made of many amino acids linked together though amide (peptide) bonds • Peptide – an amide bond that links two amino acids together • DNA • RNA • Amino Acids – a molecule that contains both an amino group and a carboxylic acid functional group.
Synthetic Polymers • Nylon– a large molecule that is made of repeating units containing polyamide (nitrogen containing functional group) • Kevlar – see reading • Plastics – compounds formed from petrochemicals which consist of long chains. The stronger the plastic the more layering of these long chains. • Why are bottles for soda, much stronger than those of water?