The Aftermath • The world is left in a mess • What is going to happen to Germany? • What is going to happen to Japan? • What is going to happen to all the Eastern European Countries that Germany took over?
The United Nations • Created to stop another world war • 51 nations were represented at the first meeting. • BIG 5: U.S., Russia (Now the Soviet Union), England, France, and China.
Potsdam Conference • Stalin, Truman, and others work out a deal concerning Germany and Eastern European Countries. • German will be split into four parts.
The World Post WW II • Soviet Union (A.K.A. = U.S.S.R) takes control of all Eastern European countries. • Forces those countries to become Communist. • The World is now scared of the quick spread of Communism.
The World Post WW II • The Countries Albania, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia become communist and are known as Satellite Nations. • America adopts a policy of Containment. (Will cause a lot of problems later) • The separation between the U.S.S.R. and the Western powers became known as “The Iron Curtain”.
The Beginning of the Cold War • Truman Doctrine: • “it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” • The Marshall Plan: • The United States will provide aid to all European nations that needed it
The Beginning of the Cold War • The Soviets see this as America trying to buy away, loyal communist countries. • U.S.S.R. Blocks off all access to Western Berlin • Berlin Airlift
Berlin Airlift • For 327 days, planes took off and landed every few minutes, around the clock. • In 277,000 flights, they brought in 2.3 million tons of supplies—everything from food, fuel, and medicine. • That’s 847 flights a day.
NATO • North Atlantic Treaty Organization • Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal—joined with the United States and Canada. • pledged military support to one another in case any member was attacked. • In retaliation U.S.S.R. creates Warsaw Pact
Back In The U.S.A • In the United States the soldiers come back and want two things:
Back In The U.S.A • To get married and start a family.
The American Dream 2. To own a home Rise of the suburbs.
1946 – 1964 76 million babies born By 1954 annual births were over 4 million. What ends it? BABY BOOM
G.I. Bill • Gave war veterans: • One year unemployment compensation • Loans to help buy homes • Loans to start businesses • Money for college/vocational training • This policy leads to the end of the depression.
The Korean Policing Action 1950-1953 • In 1949 Mao Zedong (known as Mao) takes over China • China is now communist • SO WHAT? • Policy of containment seems to be failing.
The Korean Policing Action • After WW II Korea is split in half along the 38TH parallel. • After China becomes communist, they help North Korea Surprise attack South Korea.
The Korean Policing Action • America and the U.N. send troops to help South Korea • General Douglass McArthur is put in command.
The Korean Policing Action • McArthur quickly overtakes North Korean forces and pushes them all the way to the Yalu River (border Between China and N. Korea) • China Warns America not to come any closer with troops or they will attack. • Truman doesn’t want to continue. • McArthur does want to keep attacking.
The Korean Policing Action • China Joins the battle and pushes back American forces – Again. • McArthur wants to attack China directly • Truman refuses because it would start WW III • Truman fires McArthur • After two more years of fighting the American troops push back the Chinese troops to the 38th Parallel. • A stalemate truce is declared • The situation has not change yet.
The Korean Policing Conflict • One piece of important technology came out of the Korean War. • Homework – Watch M.A.S.H. tonight
The “RED SCARE” • Soviets control all of Eastern Europe • China has become communist • Americans are afraid that communists are going to try and take over the world • 80,000 Americans have claimed membership in the communist party.
The “RED SCARE” • Congress passes the Federal Loyalty Program: • Forced government employees to take loyalty oaths • 91 organizations identified as “subversive” • Investigated 3.2 million federal employees • 212 were fired • 2,900 forced to quit because they refused take part in the investigation • Accused people could not see the evidence against them
The “RED SCARE” • HUAC – House of Un-American Activities Committee. • Investigated suspected communists throughout America • Targeted the movie industry • Threw 10 movie stars in jail because they refused to testify for the committee. • Hollywood creates a “Black List”
The “RED SCARE” • In Sept. 1949, Soviets detonated their first atomic bomb • German born scientist Klaus Fuchs • Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
The “RED SCARE” • Senator Joseph McCarthy • Was going to lose next election so…… • Claimed that communists were trying to take over the government • Claimed he knew of up to 200 communists in the American government. • Never had any proof
The “RED SCARE” • Known as “McCarthyism” • Claims that there are many communists in the army. • Senate hearings held on T.V. • Public opinion of McCarthy changes
The “RED SCARE” • Americans feel that Truman and the democratic party are not strong enough to battle communism. • Dwight D. Eisenhower easily wins the next election for the republican party.
The “RED SCARE” • The arms race – • H-Bomb • 450 times more powerful then the A- bomb dropped on Hiroshima • Brinkmanship
The “RED SCARE” • Eisenhower scales down the army, and builds up the air force. • WHY? • Secretary of State Dulles defined his policy of brinkmanship: "The ability to get to the verge without getting into the war ..." • Americans are now afraid of a nuclear attack.
Brinkmanship • Creation of the C.I.A. • Performed covert operations in the Middle East and South America
RED SCARE • Stalin dies in 1954 • Nikita Khrushchev takes over. • SPACE RACE
The RED SCARE • Russia launches Sputnik in 1957 • What is the big deal?
The RED SCARE • U-2 spy plane shot down over U.S.S.R. • Francis Gary Powers • Huge embarrassment to U.S.A. and Eisenhower
1st paragraph: What were America’s two policies towards Communism • 2nd paragraph: Discuss what is the first policy and how was it suppose to work. • 3rd paragraph: Discuss what is the second policy and how was it suppose to work • 4th paragraph: Discuss which policy was best and why.