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THE WEST AND THE CHANGING WORLD BALANCE. CHAPTER 15: THE END OF POST-CLASSICAL AGE. END OF THE OLD ORDER. Collapse of Post-Classical states Byzantines Following 2 nd Crusade, slow decline Conquered 1453 by the Ottoman Turks Abbassid Caliphate Weakened by sectionalism

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  2. END OF THE OLD ORDER • Collapse of Post-Classical states • Byzantines • Following 2nd Crusade, slow decline • Conquered 1453 by the Ottoman Turks • Abbassid Caliphate • Weakened by sectionalism • Under control of Turkish clans • Mongols and Timurlane • Conquered all major Eurasian states • Muslim cities destroyed • New routes and cities arose due to Mongols

  3. SOUTH WEST ASIA • Muslim religious leaders began to exert control • Rationalism opposed by religious conservatives • Mysticism, Islamic legalist traditions in favor • Pursuit of science declines • Landlords exercised greater authority • Peasants reduced to borderline slavery, serfdom • Agricultural productivity declined • Tax revenue • Europeans challenged Arabs • Mediterranean, rise of Aragon, Castile, Venice, France • Merchants began to replace Muslim merchants • No total collapse of Islamic civilization • Arabs lost power, old Abbassid realm fragments • Ottoman Turks rapidly took over most of area

  4. INTERNATIONAL POWER VACUUM • Ottoman Empire • Sultans did not restore Muslims to same level • Ottomans not center of international trade • Science and philosophy stagnated. • Result was power vacuum in Islamic world • Rise of Rivals to Ottomans • India • Persia • Egypt • Mongols provided alternative framework • Redirected land trade away from Muslims • Land routes turned attention to sea routes.

  5. THE CHINESE • Ming dynasty drove out the Mongols in 1368 • China was best placed to control Eurasian trade • Ming emperors sought expansion • Extending the borders of the empire • Reviving the tribute system • Initiating state-sponsored maritime expeditions. • Voyages reached India, the Middle East, and Africa • Ming emperors ordered the voyages to cease in 1433. • Costs of voyages hurt infrastructure • Scholar-gentry opposed voyages • China's decision reflected traditional Confucianism • Concentration on internal improvements • Cultural isolation • Economic expansion did not depend on foreign trade • China's withdrawal from world • Cleared the path for the emergence of Europeans • China began long stagnation

  6. HERE COME THE EUROPEANS • By 15th century • West began to expand its world contacts • Important changes taking place in Europe • Church Under attack • Great Schism saw up to three rival popes • Wealth led to reformers, who were condemned • Hus in Holy Roman Empire • Wycliffe in England • Western philosophy and creativity stagnate • Political organization of feudalism not effective • Feudal monarchs acquire new powers, wealth • Introduction of cannons, new weaponry • Death of nobles led to rise of citizen armies under kings • Impact of the Black Death, • Carried off almost one-third of Europe's population • Hit Italy and France worst • Hit merchants and urban elites including clergy heavily

  7. LATE MEDIEVAL VITALITY • New States Arose • More powerful and centralized nations arose • Developed in aftermath of 100 Years' War. • France, England, Castile, Aragon, Sweden • New forms of military organization • Made greater centralization possible • Improvements in metallurgical technology • Construction and use of guns and munitions. • Capitalism became more evident • Arose simultaneously in Netherlands, Italy • Based on cities, non-nobles, banking, trade • Increased urbanization • Especially true in Italy, Netherlands • Often associated with trade

  8. WESTERN EUROPE GROWS • Overall trend between 1000/1700 • Rapid population expansion • Black Death only slowed trend • Europeans acquire Asian technology • Western technology equal to Eurasian • Europeans adapt, improve on ideas • Europeans invent new ideas • Europeans apply technology • Adapted science to practical • Used technology in trade, navigation, war

  9. RENAISSANCE & SECULARISM • Began in Italy • At the beginning of the 14th century • Turned away from the medieval cultural • More secular outlook in art and literature • Wealth of Italian cities patronized the arts • Typical political unit of Italian peninsula • City-state • Florence, Milan, Venice, Rome and Naples • Cities competed for land, accomplishments • Administrative, economic innovations

  10. RENAISSANCE VALUES • Age of cultural innovation and individualism. • Artists abandoned medieval formalism • Concentration in arts, music, literature (humanities) • Embrace more realistic and secular styles • Classical architectural forms replaced Gothic • Tended to idealize Greece and Rome • Initially Renaissance largely limited to Italy • Even there its style was not accepted everywhere • Spread to France, England, Netherlands, Germany • Called Northern Renaissance • Bible, Hebrew more important as themes • Science, math, theology of equal importance • Italian commercial and shipping techniques • Laid the foundation for Western expansion • The "Renaissance spirit" • Encouraged a sense of innovation and discovery.

  11. IBERIA • Castile, Aragon, Portugal are lead states • Christian Reconquista began 714 • Castile, Aragon united by marriage, 1469 • Drove Muslims out of Iberia by 1492 • The Church Militant • Constant warfare = powerful, trained armies • Defense, expansion of Christianity a duty • Church worked closely with Iberian states • Encouraged sense of religious mission • Expansion abroad • Attack Muslims • Conquer lands for Christianity • Break their trade monopolies

  12. EARLY EXPANSION • Began in the 13th century • Early discoveries = promise of colonialism • Early Explorations • Vivaldi brothers of Genoa explore Atlantic • In 14th century, Genoese discovered Canary Islands • Ships from Barcelona explore Atlantic African coast • Development of new technology • More sea-worthy vessels • Compass • Astrolabe • European discoverers • Generally dominated by Portugal • King supported a navy • Built school under Prince Henry, sent out ships • Penetrate even farther into the Atlantic • Along the African shore

  13. COLONIAL PATTERNS • Colonization followed exploration • Spanish and Portuguese • Settlers established agricultural estates • European diseases killed off natives • Europeans tried to enslave natives • Europeans established feudal model for estates • Designed to produce commercial crops • Sugar, cotton, and tobacco became popular crops • Iberian settlers imported African slaves • Commercial ventures were successful • Stimulate further colonization • Plantation model of exploitation

  14. OUTSIDE THE NETWORK • Areas not part of this global network • The Americas • Polynesia • Most of sub-Saharan Africa • Remained unaffected by early expansion • Eventually brought into European system • Some experienced difficulties • Vulnerable to European expansion

  15. POLITICAL AMERICAS • Aztec/Inca empires of the Americas • In disarray prior to arrival of Europeans • Both had internal, external opposition • Aztecs hated • Incas divided between family, clans • If Americas had continued in isolation • Other cultures would have risen • Iroquois, Moundbuilders in US

  16. Expansion, Migration, and Conquest in Polynesia • Between 7th and 15th centuries • Migrations • From Society Islands to Polynesia • From Polynesia to Hawaii • Settlement of Hawaii and New Zealand • To Hawaiian islands • An agricultural society developed • Hawaii had regional kingdoms • Stratified societies • Dominated by priests and nobles • Hawaii lacked metallurgy, system of writing

  17. NEW ZEALAND • 2ND migration to New Zealand • Maori culture of New Zealand • Warlike • Dominated by priests and nobles • Lacked metallurgy • Concentrated on use of indigenous species • All of these developments occurred in total isolation from other civilizations.

  18. THE CHANGES • The 15th century was an era of critical transitions involving world trade and the relative power of civilizations. • As in the 20th century, newly dynamic civilizations challenged those that had previously dominated. Technology played a key role.

  19. GLOBAL CONNECTIONS • This period saw change and continuity in global networks. Old trade networks, like Middle Eastern Muslim networks, took place in a new context, such as the Mongol empire, which emphasized new land-based routes. Mongol decline shifted attention to sea-based routes. New states arose using new or diffused technologies. Social structures were changing, too. • The key continuity was the interest and dependence of many regions on interregional trade.

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