Biomes Standard 5e & 6a
Standard 5e & 6a • 5e: Students know rain forests and deserts on Earth are distributed in bands at specific latitudes. • 6a: Students know weather (in the short run) and climate (in the long run) involve the transfer of energy into and out of the atmosphere.
Energy Transfer • We learned from last unit that the sun heats the earth unequally, causing differences in temperature. • We also learned that evaporation and precipitation of water occurs because of the unequal heating. • Because of these two main things, solar energy and precipitation, energy is transferred throughout the globe.
Weather vs. Climate • Energy transfer causes the weather; the state of the atmosphere at a given time or place (temperature, precipitation, humidity, air pressure) • Wind & Rain • Clouds, lightning, & thunder • Disasters: hurricanes, tornadoes • Weather is different from climate; the long term average of weather.
What affects climate? • Climate in an area is affected by two main things • Direct sunlight (heat) • Precipitation • Climate directly affects the type of biome • Biome is an environment with specific vegetation and organisms • If it is cold, you have organisms that are suitable to the ____
Sunlight gives off different wavelengths When it strikes the earth, different wavelengths get reflected while others are absorbed, heating the Earth. Some of it escapes into space, some reflects back to earth due to greenhouse gases Sunlight Greenhouse Effect Sunlight Some heat escapes into space Greenhouse gases trap some heat` Atmosphere Earth’s surface
Latitude 90°N North Pole Low Sunlight 66.5°N • The amount of direct light can affect the temperature. • Remember that the equator gets the most sunlight, and polar regions gets the least. Arctic circle Sunlight Tropic of Cancer 23.5°N Equator Most direct sunlight 0° Tropic of Capricorn 23.5°S Sunlight Arctic circle 66.5°S Low Sunlight 90°S South Pole
Precipitation • The amount of water falling in the given area can greatly affect the type of climate • Remember that precipitation falls at 0° and 60°
Biomes • Because of these two factors combined, we get specific biomes at specific areas. • For example, at the equator, there is a lot of sunlight, and a lot of precipitation, so there is a tropical rainforest. • At 30°, there is a lot of sunlight, but little or no precipitation, so there is a desert.
Overview • Sunlight and precipitation affect the climate • Climate over an environment produces a biome • A biome has organisms suited to the climate • Biomes generally occur on the same latitudes
Biomes • There are two main types of biomes • Land • Aquatic (water) • We will cover both today
Land Biomes • Most land biomes are named after their climax community. • Some of the land biomes • Tundra • Taiga (TIGH-guh) • Temperate deciduous forest • Grassland • Tropical rain forest • Desert
Temperate grassland Tropical rain forest Temperate forest Tundra Northwestern coniferous forest Mountains and ice caps Tropical dry forest Desert Temperate woodland and shrubland Tropical savanna Boreal forest (Taiga)
Aquatic biomes • There are 3 main types of aquatic biomes. • The amount of salt determines the type of biome. • The 3 main types of aquatic biomes • Freshwater • Marine (saltwater) • Estuaries
Tundra • Tundra • Located near the poles • Treeless biome covered by moss, lichens, and grasses • Permafrost – a layer of permanently frozen subsoil
Taiga • Taiga • Covered by coniferous (cone bearing) trees. • Bears, wolves, moose, elk are some of the typical animals
Temperate Deciduous Forest • Temperate deciduous forest • Plants change during the seasons (leaves change color)
Grasslands • Grasslands • Most of the rainfall occurs in one part of the season • Hot summers, cold winters
Tropical Rain Forest • Tropical rain forest • Located at equator • Receive 200-400 centimeters of rain a year • Constant temperature. • Home of the most types of animals than any other biome. Many colorful
Deserts • Deserts • Located at 30° latitude • Less than 25 cm of rain falls a year • Both plants and animals must be able to retain moisture. • Birds, lizards, snakes, insects are typical • Cactus and sagebrush sparsely cover the area
Freshwater biomes • Rivers, streams, and lakes
Marine Biomes • Includes all of the ocean • Marine biomes are divided into 4 subcategories • Intertidal zone • Neritic zone • Open-sea zone • Deep-sea zone
Estuaries • Estuaries are the boundaries between freshwater and saltwater. • Since it is a mix of the two, a variety of organisms can be supported. • Examples of estuaries • Delta, swamp, lagoon
Biome Project • In groups of 4-5, create a biome presentation • Give information about the biome, including: • Temperature range (graph) • Precipitation (graph) • Location (latitudes/areas) • Plants (vegetation) • Animals • Brief Description (Examples) • Koppen climate classifications • Posterboard or Powerpoint acceptable • More visuals, the better • 500000000 points
To help you out… • A Biology Textbook • http://mbgnet.mobot.org/ • http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Laboratory/Biome/
Preplan… • What kind of presentation will you do? Powerpoint? Posterboard? • Who is doing what? Research? Picture finding? Who’s good with computers? Who’s bringing materials? • When do you want to meet up? Contact info? • Anything else you can think of…