Grade Nine Science Matter and Change Chapter 1
Matter and Change • What is matter? • Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. • Can matter change? • Provide examples. (Snow melting, water boiling)
1.2 Properties of Matter • What do we mean by the properties of an object? • A property is simply a characteristic that we can use to describe something. • There are physical properties and chemical properties.
1.2 Physical Properties of Matter • Physical property: characteristics of a substance that may help identify it. There are many types of physical properties that you may want to describe: • Colour - red, green, blue…? • Texture - smooth, fine, coarse…? • Taste - sour, salty, sweet, …?
1.2 Other Physical Properties of Matter 1. State: at room temperature • solid: fixed shape and volume • liquid: fixed volume, takes the shape of the container • gas: fills and takes the shape of the container 2. Hardness: the measure of the resistance of a solid to being scratched or dented. (diamond) 3. Malleable: able to be hammered or bent into different shapes (opposite of brittle). Glass and dried clay are examples of things that are brittle. Aluminum foil is malleable. Gold is malleable since it can be hammered into thin sheets.
1.2 Other Physical Properties of Matter 4. Copper is ductile since it can be pulled into wires. 5. Melting and boiling points: Temp. at which substances change state. • What is the boiling point of water? • The melting point of ice? 6. Crystal form: Form you can see cube or block structure. Ex. Salt crystals. 7. Solubility is the ability of a substance to dissolve in a solvent such as water. Salt is soluble while pepper is not.
1.2 Other Physical Properties of Matter 8.Viscosity: How easily a liquid flows. • The thicker the liquid, the more viscous it is. • Molasses is more viscous than water. 9. Density: The amount of matter per unit volume of that matter. The thicker the liquid, the more viscous it is. • It is measured in g/cm3. • The density of water is 1.0 g/cm3.
1.2 Chemical Properties of Matter II. Chemical property: describes the behaviour of a substance as it becomes a new substance. 1. Combustibility (flammable):the ability of a substance to burn when exposed to a flame (react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy). • When a flame is brought close to gasoline and air, the gasoline ignites and burns. • List some materials that are flammable/nonflammable.
1.2 Chemical Properties of Matter 2. Reaction with acid:Whether or not a substance reacts when exposed to acid. • When magnesium is exposed to acid, it bubbles. • When gold is exposed to acid, it does nothing. • Would you drink acid? • Look at the side of a Coke can.
Another way to classify Matter can also be grouped as Metals and Nonmetals. Now, many different mixtures of metals, called Alloys, are used. Alloys can be used for a variety of things, from airplane parts to car rims to braces.