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Alternatively Fueled Vehicles

Alternatively Fueled Vehicles

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Alternatively Fueled Vehicles

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  1. Alternatively Fueled Vehicles The Pollution Solution?

  2. Outline • Introduction • History • Types • Efficiencies • Why Hybrids? • Conclusions

  3. Why Change? Conventional emissions • 1/3 of CO2 emissions worldwide In urban areas • 40% of ozone • 80-90% of CO • 50-60% of other toxins

  4. Why Change? • A non-renewable resource • ~80 years • Gasoline prices high

  5. Not a New Idea Electric vehicle • First conceived of in mid-1800s • Easier to start, more reliable • Less range, harder to refuel Hybrids • One patented in 1905 • One in Ford museum (~1910)

  6. PNGV • The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles – September 1993 • Government and Industry partnership • Reconcile the automobile with the environment • Ensure long-term competitiveness of the automobile industry • 80mpg car mid-sized sedan

  7. Types: Fuel Cell • Advantages • Less air pollution • Greater efficiency than ICEs • Refillable • Disadvantages • Expensive • Not ready for production (at least two more years testing) Types: Fuel Cell • Convert fuel directly to energy • Proton-exchange fuel cell

  8. Disadvantages Very heavy (batteries) Low acceleration Limited range before recharging Types: Electric Run on rechargeable batteries Advantages • Zero emission • Use regenerative braking • Very quiet ride • 1/10 as polluting as ICEs (total)

  9. EV1– 1999 Model • Two-seater • Battery = 2 gallons of gas • Range ~ 130 miles • 0 to 60 mph in 9 seconds (that’s fast!) • Cost reduction when leased ($34,000 to buy) • 97% fewer emissions total

  10. Hybrids • “…at least one of the energy stores, sources, or converters can deliver electric energy” (Wouk, 1995) • Combine multiple types of energy production/storage units • Flywheels • Ultracapacitors • Hybrid electric

  11. Disadvantages Not 100% emission free Hybrid Electric Vehicle • Combines ICE and EV Advantages • Optimises engine performance • No range problems (engine charges batteries) • 1/8 as polluting as ICEs (total)

  12. Series Vs. Parallel

  13. Series Vs. Parallel Series • Very efficient – long range with small engine & generator • Less powerful Parallel • More powerful (feels like ICE) • Smaller engine and motor – less efficient

  14. Toyota Prius • Combines series and parallel characteristics • $20,450 base price • Seats five • City/Highway mpg: 52/45 (double Camry)

  15. Efficiency Internal Combustion Engines • Average power ~100kW, average used during city driving ~7.5kW • Efficiency of engine depends on load • Engines today – 30-40% thermal efficiency • When idling/low load, 15% efficiency • Fuel evaporates

  16. Efficiency Electric Vehicles • Power generation – 38% • Power transmission – 94% • Charge/discharge of battery – 55% • Total efficiency ~ 55% (based on JSAE review estimate)

  17. Efficiency Hybrid Electric Vehicles • Operate gasoline engine at top efficiency (see figure, next slide) • Charge battery when vehicle is idling • Overall efficiency ~70%

  18. Efficiency of Gasoline Engine

  19. Method of Transportation Energy consumption (kWh/mi) (total) 1975 new car fleet 3.5 1985 new car fleet 1.8 1993 new car fleet 1.7 EV, .295kWh/mi .8 Fuel cell, H2 from NG .7 ULEV-HEV car, 80mpg .5 HEV carpool of four .2 Walking .4 Efficiency: Comparison

  20. Why Hybrids? • Already in development • Battery technology cannot produce results at the moment • Fuel cell technology too expensive • Power of ICE (for same size vehicle)

  21. Conclusions • 80mpg goal of PNGV • Tier II emission standards (.07 gpm NOx, .02 gpm PM) • Safe, average cost mid-sized sedan • Improved technology – fuel cell, batteries