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Russia and Its Southern Neighbours PowerPoint Presentation
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Russia and Its Southern Neighbours

Russia and Its Southern Neighbours

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Russia and Its Southern Neighbours

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  1. Russia and Its Southern Neighbours

  2. The Context: • Geopolitical: geography is destiny • Civilizational: what is Russia • Political-economic: organizing society

  3. The Four Tiers: • Southern regions of the Russian Federation • New independent states of the Caucasus and Central Asia • The Middle East and Southwest Asia • South and East Asia

  4. Human migration routes* *The time frames are highly approximate

  5. Europe and Asia, as seen by Herodotus, 5th century BCE

  6. Alexander’s empire

  7. East- West • North-South

  8. Kiev Rus and its southern neighbours in 10th-11th centuries

  9. Struggles of Kiev Rus • Control of the steppe • Control of access to Black and Caspian seas • Loss of both in the 13th century as a result of the Tatar-Mongol conquest • People of the steppe gained control over the lands between Russia and the two seas • Since 16th century, Russia waged wars to take the steppe and gain access to the seas

  10. The rise of Muscovy, 1462-1533

  11. The homeland of Turkic peoples

  12. Subjugation of Tatar khanates (kingdoms), remnants of the Tatar-Mongol empire • Wars between Russia and the two southern empires: Turkey and Persia • Religious connotations: clash of civilizations • Human settlement of the southern frontier • Main fronts: • Balkans, Crimea, Black Sea, Caucasus

  13. Russo-Turkish war of 1735-1739

  14. Russo-Turkish war of 1768-1774

  15. Russo-Turkish war of 1787-1791

  16. By 1820s, Russia controls the entire northern and eastern coasts of the Black Sea and most of the Caspian • It continues to push south. Goals: • control of the Straits • control of the Balkans • control of Eastern Anatolia • control of Iran • Russia as conqueror • Russia as liberator

  17. Caucasian nations • Some, mostly Orthodox Christians, wanted to join the Russian Empire • (Ossetians, Armenians, Georgians) • Others, mostly Muslims, fiercely resisted it • (Circassians, Chechens) • Clash of civilizations around the Black Sea

  18. 19th century • Russian expansion into Iran and Central Asia • Security concerns minimal • Human settlement • Trade routes • Resources • Taking advantage of decay of Islamic states in the region • Britain contains Russia’s southward push • “The Great Game” • The Russian-British deal

  19. World War I: Russia’s southern policies as a major cause • Russian expansion southward stimulated Western attempts at containment • The Crimean War of 1844-45 • Settlement of Russo-Turkish war of 1877-1878 • Balkan wars of 1911 and 1912 • Nationalism between empires • The start of World War I • The Caucasian front of World War I

  20. Ascending the Caucasus

  21. Northern Caucasus: Mount Elbrus

  22. Northern Caucasus

  23. Northern Caucasus: the Military Georgian Road

  24. Southern Caucasus, Mount Ararat

  25. Southern Caucasus

  26. Southern Caucasus: Hellenistic temple built in 1st century CE

  27. Tbilisi, capital of Georgia

  28. Georgia: the region of Svanetia

  29. Tbilisi: Old Town

  30. A new church in Armenia

  31. Yerevan, the capital of Armenia

  32. Baku, capital of Azerbaijan: the Old City

  33. Baku: seaside

  34. Russia’s southern frontier was not only a frontline in wars • Also - a hotbed of rebellion • Since 18th century: Cossack uprisings • Throughout the 19th century and afterwards: mountaineer unrest and rebellions • Early 20th century: socialism and nationalism • Key role of the Caucasus in the Russian revolutions of 1905, 1917, and 1991

  35. After the Tsar • Bolsheviks came to power on an anti-imperialist wave • Social and national liberation • Destruction of the empire in 1917 • Creation of new republics • Other great powers try to take advantage of the Russian Civil War

  36. Soviet policies • Suppression of anti-Russian nationalism inside the former empire • The socialist project as a model of multiethnic society, incorporating elements of nationalism • Support of anti-Western nationalism outside the former empire • Result: a new revolutionary empire viewed as an ally in Asia

  37. Turkey • A reconciliation between the 2 post-imperial states • Not a single military conflict since 1918 • Normal relations • Soviet support of the Turkish Left

  38. Iran • The impact of the Russian revolution • Soviet renunciation of Russian imperial claims to Northern Iran • Support of Iran’s independence and modernization • Support of Iran’s Left

  39. Afghanistan • The Russian Revolution enables Afghanistan to gain full independence from Britain in 1919 • Afghanistan became the first country to recognize the Soviet government in Russia • Support of independence and modernization

  40. India • The Russian revolution as an inspiration for Indian struggle for independence • Indian nationalists viewed Soviet Russia as an ally in the fight against imperialism in Asia • Soviet support for both communists and nationalists • British concerns about Russia’s ideological influence

  41. Mongolia • With Soviet help, wins its independence from China in 1921 • In 1924, a communist government is installed • Soviet protection, assistance and control

  42. China • Example of the Russian Revolution • Soviet support of China’s independence and modernization • Support of both nationalists and communists