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  2. KMR Enterprises Software License Agreement for Conditions of Learning and Instructional Design PLEASE READ THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT CAREFULLY BEFORE USING THIS SOFTWARE. BY USING THIS SOFTWARE, YOU ARE AGREEING TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS LICENSE. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS LICENSE, PLEASE DO NOT USE THIS SOFTWARE. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THE LICENSE. PUBLISHED UNDER THE CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSE. 1.General. The software, documentation and any fonts accompanying this License whether on disk, read-only memory, or any other media or in any other form are licensed by KMR Enterprises. If you plan on using this prototype for your own purposes, please give proper credit to the creators: Ellie Franco, Marc Prado, John Kintanar, and Cletus Ganschow 2.Permitted License Uses and Restrictions. This license allows you to use this prototype and freely distribute it provided proper credit is given. 3. Derivative Licensing may be granted only upon approval from original developers. (KMR theme song exempt from this requirement and may be remixed.) Click here to Continue

  3. Tutorial Click to Choose a topic Click “help” at anytime to return to Tutorial Page Click to Exit SKIP

  4. Constructivism CONSTRUCTIVISM CONSTRUCTIVISMCONSTRUCTIVISMCONSTRUCTIVISM constructivism constructivism constructivismconstructivismconstructivism C O N S T R U C T I V I S M Constructivism Defined About Constructivism Explore Constructivism Exit Help

  5. Click to Close • About Constructivism Psychologist Lev Vygotskyproposed that children learn through interactions with their surrounding culture. This is the basis for the “collaboration” element visible in constructivism. Even though Vygotsky recognized that children learned from their peers, he believed that in order to reach higher levels of learning, children needed adults to scaffold them onto new concepts and ideas. This led him to create the Zone of Proximal Development, the ideal area where students can learn new information. Information paraphrased from: (http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/29997/vygotskys_theory_of_cognitive_development.html?cat=4 ) • Piaget • Vygotsky • Objectivism vs. Constructivism • Constructivism in the Classroom Jean Piaget focused much of his attention on the “how” of learning. He recognized that children learn very differently at certain ages and thus differ drastically in their capabilities. Piaget would be happy with the exploration aspect of constructivism, because it allows students to absorb information in the ways that best suit them. Small children, for example, may not be capable of much abstract thought, but they can start by learning about similarities and differences by categorizing things. Most importantly, Piaget developed the concept of schema, the set of knowledge each person possesses, where everything is connected with everything else. Constructivism, by encouraging students to bring their own background, enables them to add new concepts to their personal schema. Information paraphrased from: (http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm) • Interview with Piaget and Vygotsky Click to Close Home Help

  6. Constructivism Defined What is Constructivism? The Epistemology of Constructivism Journals Constructivism Defined About Constructivism Explore Constructivism Test Your Knowledge Home Help

  7. Definition: Constructivism is an epistemology that states knowledge is constructed by a person based on their own experiences, knowledge of the world, and reflections. “Learning is an active process whereby the student must be actively involved in the creation of his or her own knowledge through active interactions with the phenomenon. In this view, students are active creators, not mere passive receivers of knowledge. As students are creators of knowledge, constructivists make an important distinction between the students’ public and private knowledge” – Pine &West Next Back

  8. What Constructivism is not… “Those truly committed to liberation must reject the banking concept in its entirety, adopting instead a concept of women and men as conscious beings, and consciousness as consciousness intent upon the world. They must abandon the educational goal of deposit-making and replace it with the posing of the problems of human beings in their relations with the world." – Paulo Freire This quote highlights the flaws of traditional teaching methods as the depositing information into an empty vessel. This is the complete opposite of Constructivism. As educators we must steer away from this way of teaching and help students become more active participants in their learning experiences. Next Back

  9. Key Elements of the Constructivist Theory: Learner-centered- the students are actively engaged in activities in which they will be able to construct their own knowledge. Prior knowledge- the students prior experiences, background, and culture are seen as assets that will assist the student in creating their knowledge. Experience – the students are actively engaged in an activity based on real world situations that interest them and motivate them to participate. Collaboration-the students are encouraged to share ideas, question, reflect, and support each other through out the activity which will build on everyone’s understanding. Teacher as a facilitator- teacher are their to provide feedback and guidance through out the process. They are not there to dispense knowledge. Back

  10. Gagne’s Conditions of Learning Influential Theories Elements of the following learning theories can be found in Constructivist Epistemology. Click buttons to open and reclick again to close sub-windows. • Constructivist Theory • Multiple Intelligence • Information Processing Theory • Situated Learning

  11. Peer Reviewed Articles: Betne, P., & Castonguay, R. (2008). On the Role of Mathematics Educators and Librarians in Constructivist Pedagogy. Education, 129(1), 56-79. Retrieved from ERIC database. Castro Atwater, S. (2008). Waking Up to Difference: Teachers, Color-Blindness, and the Effects on Students of Color. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 35(3), 246-253. Retrieved from ERIC database. Fiume, P. (2005). Constructivist Theory and Border Pedagogy Foster Diversity as a Resource for Learning. Community College Enterprise, 11(2), 51-64. Retrieved from ERIC database. Larrotta, C., & Gainer, J. (2008). Text Matters: Mexican Immigrant Parents Reading Their World. Multicultural Education, 16(2), 45-48. Retrieved from ERIC database. Marcum-Dietrich, N. (2008). Using Constructivist Theories to Educate the "Outsiders". Journal of Latinos and Education, 7(1), 79-87. Retrieved from ERIC database. Nelson, J., & Eckstein, D. (2008). A Service-Learning Model for At-Risk Adolescents. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(2), 223-237. Retrieved from ERIC database. Sherman, T., & Kurshan, B. (2005). Constructing Learning: Using Technology to Support Teaching for Understanding. Learning and Leading with Technology, 32(5), 10-13,. Retrieved from ERIC database. Websites: http://www.learning-theories.com/constructivism.html http://www.exploratorium.edu/IFI/resources/constructivistlearning.html http://www.teach-nology.com/currenttrends/constructivism/

  12. Credits Project Manager Ellie Franco Writer Cletus Ganschow Video Editor Marc Prado Programmer John Kintanar

  13. Explore Constructivism Directions Checklist Lesson Plan Blog Game Game Prototype Other Activities Click here to close window Constructivist Criteria Checklist Evaluate your lesson based on the following criteria. If you realize an element is missing discuss with your group how you can modify and improve your lesson. Constructivist Criteria Learner-centered- the students are actively engaged in activities in which they will be able to construct their own knowledge. Prior knowledge- the students prior experiences, background, and culture are seen as assets that will assist the student in creating their knowledge. Experience – the students are actively engaged in an activity based on real world situations that interest them and motivate them to participate. Collaboration- the students are encouraged to share ideas, question, reflect, and support each other through out the activity which will build on everyone’s understanding. Teacher as a facilitator- teacher are there to provide feedback and guidance through out the process. They are not there to dispense knowledge. Element(s) in your lesson plan Click here to close window • Read Before Proceeding • Step 1: Review the checklist. • Step 2: Contrast the two lesson plans. Observe what makes one more “top-down” and the other more student-centered. • Step 3: Play game (this is not an actual working prototype, but the idea is there.) • Step 4: Access blog. In the upper right hand corner, you will see “what have you learned?” and “Lesson Integration” Post under “What have you learned?”. • Step 5 (optional): Read what others have posted under lesson plan integration. Later, come back and share how you have implemented constructivist ideals in your own lesson designs! Home Help Click here to close window Personification Lesson Plan- traditional Objectives: Students will read a poem. Students will be able to define and recognize the personification of objects or ideas when they read them in a poem. Students will assess what makes the objects in the poem, Sylvia Plath’s The Mushroom and Billy Collins' Forgetfulness as true examples of personification.  Materials: Personification definition, The Mushroom by Sylvia Plath, Forgetfulness by Billy Collins Procedure: Pass out a worksheet with a short section on the definition of personification. Discuss how different things can be personified as being human, although they are nonliving objects. “What can you do with this literary device? Does anyone have any examples in our previous reading? (if applicable) What about television?”  Teacher-lead discussion on what elements in each of the poems make it personification. Discuss the differences between the way Plath personifies the mushroom and how Collins personifies memories. Assessment: Observe and note participation in discussion. Collect papers and informally check the answers. Do they have a logical backing for what they wrote? Are the students on the right track?  Personification lesson plan w/Constructivism (constructivist elements in blue, with commentary in red) Objectives: Students will read a poem. Students will be able to define and recognize the personification of objects or ideas when they read them in the poems. Students will create their own examples of personification. (students are actively creating their own examples) Materials: Personification definition, The Mushroom by Sylvia Plath, Thomas the Train Engine video clip (tap prior knowledge) Procedure: Show video clip of Thomas the Train Engine. Have students get into groups and read the poems The Mushroom- discuss with partners what similarities you find between the poem, The Mushroom and Thomas the Train Engine. (collaboration) Bring out a box of random items, and arrange said items on the table one by one. Each student picks out an item and fills out a questionnaire which asks questions that could only be answered by humans. Students must apply traits to an object.  Students write a poem applying those traits. (real world tool should students opt to use strategy in any writing)  Students read their poems to the class, with short feedback provided by the other students. (discussion and reflection) Notice: Teacher acts as facilitator, never providing direct instruction.  Assessment: Observe and note participation and discussion. Collect poems.

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