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Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh Conceptual Integrated Science

Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh Conceptual Integrated Science

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Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh Conceptual Integrated Science

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  1. Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/YehConceptual Integrated Science Chapter 11 INVESTIGATING MATTER

  2. This lecture will help you understand: • The Nature of Chemistry • The Submicroscopic World • Phases of Matter • Change of Phase • Physical and Chemical Properties • Elements • The Periodic Table • Chemical Compounds • Naming Compounds

  3. The Nature of Chemistry • Chemistry is. . . • the study of matter and the transformations it can undergo.

  4. The Nature of Chemistry

  5. The Nature of Chemistry • Chemistry is. . . • the study of matter and the transformations it can undergo.

  6. The Nature of Chemistry • Chemistry is. . . • the study of matter and the transformations it can undergo. • the “central” science.

  7. Chemistry Physics Biology Earth Science Astronomy

  8. The Nature of Chemistry • Chemistry is. . . • the study of matter and the transformations it can undergo. • the “central” science. • a “materials” science.

  9. The Nature of Chemistry • Chemistry is. . . • the study of matter and the transformations it can undergo. • the “central” science. • a “materials” science. Most of the material items in any modern house are shaped by some human-devised chemical process.

  10. [full screen Fig 11.2 - no caption]

  11. The Nature of Chemistry More than 70 percent of all legislation placed before the Congress of the United States addresses science-related questions and issues.

  12. The Nature of ChemistryA situation to ponder… Collagen cross-link inhibitors that significantly reverse various aspects of aging have recently been discovered.

  13. The Nature of Chemistry CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR Clinically tested to be safe and effective collagen cross-link inhibitors should be • available to the general public. • available only to those 21 and older. • available only by prescription. • prohibited because of their abuse potential. • prohibited because growing old should be natural.

  14. The Nature of Chemistry CHECK YOUR ANSWER Clinically tested to be safe and effective collagen cross-link inhibitors should be • available to the general public. • available only to those 21 and older. • available only by prescription. • prohibited because of their abuse potential. • prohibited because growing old should be natural. Stay Informed !

  15. The Submicroscopic World A single grain of sand contains about 125 million trillion atoms.

  16. The Submicroscopic World A single grain of sand contains about 125 million trillion atoms. How much is 125 million trillion??

  17. The Submicroscopic World Roughly 250,000 dunes of this size containabout 125 million trillion grains of sand.

  18. The Submicroscopic World Roughly 250,000 dunes of this size contain about 125 million trillion grains of sand. Yet, that’s how many atoms there are in a single grain of sand. (Atoms are small.)

  19. The Submicroscopic World The Submicroscopic WorldA situation to ponder… Are atoms made of molecules or are molecules made of atoms??

  20. The Submicroscopic World

  21. Phases of Matter Solid Occupies definite volume and shape Liquid Occupies definite volume, indefinite shape Gas Occupies indefinite volume and shape

  22. Phases of Matter

  23. Phases of Matter Diffusion The tendency of molecules to move from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration.

  24. Change of Phase Melting A change of phase from solid to liquid Freezing A change of phase from liquid to solid Evaporation A change of phase from liquid to gas

  25. Change of Phase Sublimation A change of phase from solid to gas Boiling Evaporation occurring beneath the liquid’s surface Condensation A change of phase from gas to liquid

  26. Change of Phase

  27. Change of Phase Latent Heat Heat added or taken away from a substance without a change in temperature.

  28. Change of Phase Latent Heat Heat added or taken away from a substance without a change in temperature. “How can heat be added or taken away without there being a change in temperature?”

  29. Change of Phase Latent Heat Heat added or taken away from a substance without a change in temperature. Check Your Neighbor ! “How can heat be added or taken away without there being a change in temperature?”

  30. Integrated Science—Physics How is it possible to add energy to a ball without making the ball go faster?

  31. Integrated Science—Physics How is it possible to add energy to a ball without making the ball go faster? Increase the ball’s potential energy by lifting it over your head.

  32. Integrated Science—Physics How is it possible to add energy to two attached magnets without making them go faster?

  33. Integrated Science—Physics How is it possible to add energy to two attached magnets without making them go faster? Increase their potential energy by pulling them apart.

  34. Integrated Science—Physics How is it possible to add heat to water without an increase in temperature?

  35. Integrated Science—Physics How is it possible to add heat to water without an increase in temperature? Increase the water’s potential energy by pulling water molecules apart from one another, which is what happens when water changes phase.

  36. Change of Phase Latent Heat Heat added or taken away from a substance without a change in temperature. Heat of Fusion The energy needed to change a substance from solid to liquid (and vice versa). Heat of Vaporization The heat energy needed to change a substance from liquid to gas (and vice versa).

  37. Change of Phase Evaporation is a cooling process. Condensation is a warming process.

  38. Change of Phase Evaporation is a cooling process.

  39. Integrated Science—Physics

  40. Change of Phase Condensation is a warming process.

  41. Change of Phase

  42. Change of Phase CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR Water’s heat of vaporization is so much greater than its heat of fusion, because • liquid water is most dense. • at higher temperatures there is more available energy. • it involves a complete separation among molecules. • water vapor is mixed in with air molecules.

  43. Change of Phase CHECK YOUR ANSWER Water’s heat of vaporization is so much greater than its heat of fusion, because • liquid water is most dense. • at higher temperatures there is more available energy. • it involves a complete separation among molecules. • water vapor is mixed in with air molecules.

  44. Notice how going from liquid to gas requires the complete separation among molecules.

  45. Physical and Chemical Properties • A physical property describes the look or feel of a substance.

  46. Physical and Chemical Properties • A physical property describes the look or feel of a substance. • A chemical property describes the tendency of a substance to transform into a new substance.

  47. Physical and Chemical Properties It is a chemical property of iron to transform into rust.